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【英语】整理有关医学英文病历写作
日期:2007-2-23  点击:4652

整理有关医学英文病历写作,提供大家作参考:(韩医生编排整理) 2007年2月23日 8:02:44

一、主要调查项目:
1.主诉chief complaint:weakness, malaise, chills, fever, sleep, pain, headache,
appetite, weight, stomach and bowels, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, urine,
genitalia, neuropsychiatric disorders, respiration, shortness of breath, bleeding or
discharge, etc.
2.现症历present illness:onset(date, mode), duration before present entry, exciting
cause and environmental influences, prodromal symptoms, general symptoms,
course or progress( location, duration, severity, continuity, intermission, radiation,
treatment), aggravating and alleviating factors, loss of weight, appetite and
strength, sleep, bowel movement, frequency of urination, menstruation, etc.
3.既往历past history:
1)former places of residence, previous stage of health( 健壮的robust,纤弱的
delicate), experience with similar disease, immunity to infectious disease
2)previous illness:麻疹measles, 腮腺炎mumps, 水痘chicken-pox, 百日咳
pertussis, 流行性感冒influenza, 猩红热scarlet fever, 白喉diphtheria,伤寒
typhoid fever, 支气管炎bronchitis, 肺炎pneumonia,脑炎encephalitis,脑膜炎
meningitis,破伤风tetanus,小儿麻痹poliomyelitis,赤痢dysentery,霍乱cholera,
胸膜炎pleurisy,天花small-pox,疟疾malaria,结核病tuberculosis,黄疸病
jaundice,过敏性反应allergy,etc
3)venereal disease:specific symptoms, signs, and the disease by name, treatment.
4)Accidents( date, any disability, sequelae), operation and hospitalization
(date , procedure, name of hospital , physician, complications, bleeding tendency)
4.家族历family history:family tendency, presence of hereditary disorders, cancer,
tuberculosis, mental disorder and nervous affection, rheumatism, diabetes,
hypertension, cerebral vascular accident, hemophilia, syphilis, tumor, epilespsy,
allergy, contact with diseased individuals, relationship of patient’s childhood and
adult life, age, health condition, and cause of death of parents, grandparents, self ,
spouse, siblings , or relatives.
5.个人历personal history:
1)Social history:fears, metal status, education, financial condition, number of
dependents, family harmony or fractious , hygienic condition at home
2)Marital history:duration of marriage, 1st or 2nd marriage, age and death of
spouse and children , cause and age at time of death, number of children ,
pregnancies, 流产次数miscarriages, 死产数 stillbirths
3)occupational history:duration of employment, past work, exact nature of work,
exposure to occupational hazards, whether work is satisfactory or not.
4)Habits:alcohol, tobacco, narcotic, coffee, tea, appetite, food habits, regularity of
meals, rapidity of eating , bowel movements, sleep, exercise, interests, etc.
6.系统检查system review:
1)General:nutrition, fever, night sweats, tremor, weight gain or loss, weakness,
allergy.
2)Skin:荨麻疹hives, rash, eczema
3)Head:trauma, headache, loss of hair
4)Eyes:vision, pain glasses diplopia.
5)Ears:pain, discharge, deafness, tinnitus.
6)Nose:obstruction, discharge, epistaxis, rhinitis.
7)Mouth:teeth, lips, gums, tongue, disturbance in taste.
8)Throat.:sore throat, tonsillitis, 脓性扁桃腺炎quinsy, dysphagia
9)Neck:adenitis, goiter , rigidity
10)Cardiorespiratory:palpitation, tachycardia, blood pressure, chest pain, dyspnea,
cough , hemoptysis , seasonal cold, expectoration.
11)Gastrointestinal:appetite, nausea, vomiting, distress(before or after meals),
melena, colic, jaundice, fullness, hernia, hemorrhoid, constipation, diarrhea,
frequency of bowel movement , heartburn, idiosyncrasies, relation of symptoms to
eating, type and quantity of food
12)Genito-urinary:dysuria, urinary frequency, dribbling , hematuria, pyuria, nocturia
and volume, enuresis, incontinence, sores about external genitalia, symptoms
suggestive of syphilis(mucous patches, falling hair), urethral discharge, exposure
to venereal infection, obstetric history, catamenia(age of onset, date of last
period, cycle and amount, periodicity , dysmenorrheal, menopause) leucorrhea,
associated headache
13)Neuromuscular:神经过敏nervousness, emotional stress, weakness, muscle or
joint pains, convulsion, numbness, neuralgia, anesthesia, muscular atrophies or
dysatrophies, deformities.

二、病历与时态
1.现症历(present illness):
1)A.现在式:表示一般的真理、职业、人格、习惯和现在的事实、动作或状
态。
例1:Sedentary habits often interfere with health
例2:He is mentally deranged and disoriented as to time, place, and person
例3:He gets up at 6 every morning.
B.现在进行式(Be+ pres. p.)表示现在某动作正在进行中。
例1:Both his parents are still living and well.
例2:The patients is getting worse and worse.
例3:The patients is progressively doing well.
C.表「经常的习惯」也用进行式,通常与always, constantly等副词连用。
例1:He is always taking a nap in class.
例2:He is constantly forgetting peoples’ names.
例3:He is for ever complaining of headaches.
D.通常不用进行式的动词。
a)不随意动词( Verbs of involuntary actions):
-知觉( perception):feel, hear, notice, see, smell等。
例1:Whenever he has a cold, he can neither taste nor smell.
-知识(knowledge):believe, (dis)agree, doubt, find, forget, know, mind,
remember, think, understand等。
例1:She does not remember specific scratches which might have preceded the
present lesions.
-感情( emotion):desire, despise, disgust, fear, hate, hope, (dis)like, love,
prefer, want等。
例1:He likes lobster, but it disagrees with him.
b)表示继续状态的动词( Verbs of continuous state):表示存在、所有等动
词:appear, be, belong, consist, flow, have, hold, live, look, possess, resemble,
seem等。
例1:Her fingers and hands are stiff and cyanotic.
例2:He has no discomfort and eats well.
2)A.现在完成式( Have+ p.p)
a)表示动作的完了(completion of an action)或其结果的现在状态(present state
of things):
例1:The patient has passed the crisis. = The patient is out of danger now.
例2:He has caught cold. = He has a cold now.
注:常用的连用副词为:all this while, (not) yet, already , just, now, by this
time, today, this week( or month, year, etc.), hitherto, till now, up to( till) no
w, recently, lately, of late等。
比较:过去式仅表示过去的动作状态;现在完成式则以表示现在为主。
例1:He had no appetite for food. (过去式)→表示过去某时有过食欲
不振
例2:Lately he had had no appetite for food. (现在完成式)→表示现在
仍然胃口不佳。
b)表示截至现在为止的经验( experience):
例1:He has seldom consulted a doctor in his life.
例2:He has never been treated by a doctor since he was born.
注:表示经验时,常用的副词为:ever, before, once, many times, (very)
often, seldom, sometimes, in one’s time等副词。
比较:同一动词有时表示完了,有时表示经验,视其所连用的副词而决
定。
例1:He has just undergone a nephrectomy.→表示动作完了。
例2:He has undergone a nephrectomy once.→表示经验。
c)表示截至现在为止的动作或状态的继续(continuance)
例1:He has been deaf in the left ear since the age of 18 and has experienced
slight dizziness on stooping.
例2:Except fro a slight loss of energy, he has always felt well.
例3:For the past 10 years he has had persistent and high-pitched tinnitus in
his left ear, consisting a buzzing sensation and, occasionally, the sounds
of bells.
注:常用的连用副词为:since, always, from, for, these, how long?
B.现在完成进行式( Have been +~ing)
a)表示以前开始的动作继续到现在的状态:
例1:He came here 2 weeks ago, and has been lying sick with a cold
since then.
例2:The patient has recently had experience of memory loss and of spells of
dizziness. For the preceding 5 years she has been receiving treatment for
hypertension.
b)表示「习惯」:
例1:The patient has been smoking excessively.
例2:She has been chewing a wad of bubble gum all day.
注:常用的连用副词为:since, for, how long?,these, form, always
等。
比较:
例1:He has been learning medicine for 5 years. (继续)
例2:He has learned medicine for 5 years. (经验)
2.既往历(past history):大半用过去式,但发生过去某一定时间以前者,宜
用过去完成式;如果疾病发生的前后关系甚明显,或以年代顺序记载
时,仍可用过去式。
1)A.过去式:用以表示过去的动作、状态、习惯等且与现在的情形毫无关
联。
a)发生于过去某时者:
例1:An unknown number of years ago he was said to have pneumonia.
例2:In addition to the above symptoms, he noted some vague abdominal pain
for a couple of months in the past.
例3:At that time she had a slight nonproductive cough and mild exertional
dyspnea.
例4:Before therapy, she was unable to swallow anything but small sips of
water.
b)过去某时以后的状态:
例1:In the previous month she noticed that the stools were greatly flattened.
Subsequently she became aware of a bearing-down pain the rectum.
例2:Menarche occurred at age 13, thereafter menses were regular, every 28
days, lasting 3 to 4 days each time.
例3:The patient had tinnitus in his left ear 10 years before being discharged
for the military service. Several year later, he noted loss of hearing on the
left.
例4:In June 1956, a sterilizing operation was performed at a hospital. For the
ensuing 5 months the patient was troubled with intermittent attacks of
vague abdominal pain.
例5:Two years after this episode she had one short attack of vertigo but has
been attack-free for 2 years.
注1:过去式常用的连用副词:ago, last night, yesterday, the day before
yesterday, the other day, this morning , just now等。
注2:现在完成和过去两者都可用的连用副词:just, ever, lately, recently,
once, always, already, this morning, today, every night, this week, these
few days, for the last few days, since last week, before, yet等。
B.表示过去的习惯时,须用used to , was (were) accustomed to ~或had the
habit to ~等。用would来表示过去的习惯时,大抵与often, sometimes
等副词连用。
例1:He used to work far into the night.
例2:He would sometimes come home drunk, and beat his wife.
C.过去进行式( Be 动词的过去式+ pres. p.):表示在过去某一时间正在进行
的动作:
例1:One sister was suffering from active tuberculosis.
例2:He was having mild symptoms of fever and nausea at the time he was
seen.
例3:He was raising large amounts of purulent sputum at that time.
D.过去完成式( Had + p.p.):表示截至过去某一时间为止的动作的完了、
经验、继续等。
a)完了( completion):
例1:The patient had already expired when he came.
例2:By that time he had immunized against smallpox.
连用副词:already, by that time, (not) yet, only just等。
b)经验(experience):
例1:Till then he had never seen so-called bone-setter.
例2:He could not repeat what he had said before.
c)继续(continuance):
例1:He had long been ill in bed.
例2:He had been ill in bed for a long time.
E.过去完成进行式(Had been + pres. p.):表示继续过去某一时间的动作。
例1:Up to that time, he had been drinking mush wine.
例2:Due to her increasing constipation, she had been taking laxatives daily
for one year before admission.
比较:
例1:I was sleeping when he came. (过去进行式)
例2:I had been sleeping for an hour before he came.(过去完成进行式)

三、家族历
1.家族无~病:
例1:There is no family history of anemia or other relevant disorders.
例2:The family history did not reveal the occurrence of any congenital anormaly.
2.家族历无异状:
例1:Family history was allegedly not remarkable.
例2:His family history was irrelevant to the present illness.
例3:Her family history , besides the fact that her brother died form Darier’s disease, was no contributory.
例4:There is nothing important in his direct or collateral hereditary antecedents.
3.健康:be in good health;be healthy
不健康:have a bad health;be unhealthy
例1:His farther is well with no evidence of illness.
例2:His grandfather 87, is still hale and healthy.
4.家族有~病:
例1:He is the only member of a family of 5 have Hodgkin’s disease.
例2:Family history showed chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in a maternal cousin.
5.家族有~倾向:
例1:There was a strong family history of hemophilia;6 members of the present generation were affected.
例2:There was a high incidence of gallbladder disease in the family.
6.过敏:
例1:He had no history of penicillin sensibility, however, he once noted petechiae
after taking aspirin.
例2:No asthma, hives or any idiosyncrasy to foods.
7.因~而死:
例1:His father’s death was coincidental with the patient’s illness.
例2:His eldest brother died of pneumonia at the age of 28 in the preantiboitic era.

四、个人历
1.吸烟:
例1:History revealed that he started smoking 10 years before, at the age of 23,
and has smoked ever since. At first he smoked only a few cigarettes a day but
gradually increased this to three-fourths of a package per day, his present rate.
例2:He now smokes an average of 2 packages of cigarettes daily and has
averaged this amount for the past 7 years.
2.饮酒:
例1:The patient admitted to excessive use of alcohol for years with a grossly
inadequate dies.
例2:He customarily consumed up to 2 bottles of beer a day on weekends but
denied long period of alcoholic excess or the daily use of alcohol.
3.饮食:
例1:The boy never ate any fresh fruits or vegetables and did not like milk.
例2:She took supplemental multivitamins daily and used a variety of
mouthwashes.
4.工作:
例1:The patient’s occupation ( for more than five years) necessitated his
breathing acid fumes.
例2:His complaints persisted, and he was unable to resume his regular work.
5.分娩:
例1:The history relative to her pregnancy suggested that she was in her 5th
month of gestation ( pregnancy).
例2:She is a 30-year-old primigravida with long-standing sterility (infertility).
6.其它(卫生、习惯等):
例1:He spent 3 months visiting Taipei in early 1960 and denied travel outside of
Taiwan after that time.
例2:The pt. related that she has always lived in Peitou expect for 8 months during
1958~1959 when she temporarily moved to Tienmoo.
例3:The house was located in a river valley and , therefore, was in a damp,
foggy area.
例4:The families of both parents were long residents in the same rural area in
Taitung prefecture.
例5:He was born in a small village of illiterate and primitive parents.
例6:The family had a sick kitten and also kept dogs at the time of the present
illness.
例7:He preferred the supine position partially rotated to the right side.
例8:The patient stated that he was in the habit of spending a great deal of time
at the beach during the summer.
例9:She lacked outside interests and was apathetic.
例10:His interests and activities centered mainly on his job.
例11:The patient is not in a good term with his boss.
例12:His income was somewhat above the average for the area in which he
lived, and he was well satisfied with his present occupation.

五、既往历Past History
(1)他一直很健康,到1960年10月,才慢慢地开始有咳嗽和脓痰。
He had enjoyed good health until Oct. 1960, when he gradually developed cough
and purulent sputum.
※到某时一直健康
-几乎未生病 be barely ever sick
ex1:He had been well until Nov. 1960, at which time he was found to have
diabetes mellitus.
ex2:He was apparently healthy most of his life, and did not consult a physician
until his present illness.
(2)以前他没有患过任何病,在幼小时所做的一般免疫,并无不良反应。
He had no illnessnes of any kind before and received routine immunizations at an
early age without ill effects.
※未曾患过病
ex1:He denied experiencing episode of coughing at any time in his life.
ex2:He denied any history of prior cardiovascular symptoms before onset of the
present illness.
(3)他曾患过通常的小儿期疾病和肺炎一次,这些病都顺利痊愈。
He had the usual childhood diseases plus one bout of pneumonia from which
he made uneventful recoveries.
※生过病
-患病 suffer from;have an attack of ;be attacked by
-在童年时代患过麻疹,但无合并症发生 have measles during childhood
without complications
-一起身就会头晕 experience light-headed on sitting up
-患严重的喘息性支气管炎 contract severe asthmatic bronchitis
ex1:He had a lunatic tendency 4 years ago.
ex2:He has been a known diabetic since 24 years of age.
※除~病外未患过病
ex1:His early development was normal and he suffered no significant illness
apart from measles at the age of 5.
ex2:Except for childhood disease he has had no more serious diseases until
now.
※免疫
ex1:He was vaccinated in childhood, and reacted in a routine manner.
ex2:The first D.P.T. immunization was given at 3 months, and was followed by
high fever, lethargy.
※易患~
-常常感冒 be subject to frequent colds
-容易感冒 be apt to catch cold
-多病 prone to illness
ex1:Although he was subject to joint pains in his childhood, he gave no
definite history of rheumatic fever.
ex2:She was susceptible to car sickness, a tendency which had been less
pronounced in the past year.
(4)他有在22岁患过肺炎的病历。
He has a history of pneumonia diagnosed at the age of 22.
※诊断\
-诊断 diagnose (the case as) ;establish (make) a diagnosis
-误诊 make a wrong diagnosis;misdiagnosis
ex1:He has a history of being diagnosed as pneumonia 4 years ago.
ex2:He states that a diagnosis of pneumonia was made 4 years ago.
※「诊断」记载例
ex1:Diagnosis:senile paranoid
ex2:Diarrhea and vomiting of undertermined etiology.
ex3:Malignant gastric ulcer, as much as could be observed.
※诊断书\
ex1:This certifies that the above named patient suffered from the disease
stated above.
ex2:This is to certify that the said patient is seriously sick with liver atrophy.
It is recommended that he should be confined to hospital for good care
and treatment for a period of one month.
(5)他于1952年10月16日,因肺结核接受部分胸廓成形术,而住了院。
He was admitted on Oct. 16, 1952 to undergo a partial thoracoplasty for pulmonary
tuberculosis.
※年月日
-在8月3日黄昏 on the evening of Aug. 3
-去年11月 in Nov. last;last Nov.
-在前几个月当中 during the past couple of months
-在上月初(月中、月底) at the beginning (middle, end) of last month
-每隔一天 every other day;on alternate days;every two days
-每隔二天 at intervals of 2 days;every 3rd day
-连续5天 for 5 consecutive days
-几乎一个月 for nearly a month
-足足的一个月 for a full month
-期间不详 for an unknown length of time
-期间不明确 for an indefinite period
-次2夜 the 2 succeeding nights
-前一夜 the preceding (previous) night
※住院
-住院 enter (be admitted to ) hospital;entering (admission to ) hospital;go
(be taken ) to hospital
-住院时 at the time of one's admission to the hospital
-10年前因治疗肺炎而住院 be hospitalized 10 years ago for treatment of
pneumonia
※出院
-出院 leave hospital;be out of hospital; be discharged (dismissed) from
hospital
(6)在1960年他患了胃病,在医院治疗16天后痊愈。
In 1960 he experienced stomach trouble from which he recovered completely
after being treated in a hospital for 16 days.
※治疗
-彻底医治 cure (a disease) completely (radically) ;effect a radical cure
-作许多种治疗 try many treatments (for)
-忽视肿瘤,并且不接受治疗 ignore the tumor and refuse treatment
-在家里接受治疗 have domiciliary treatment
-述说过去一再使用盘尼西林治疗淋病 give a history of repeated treatments
with penicillin for gono in the past.
-自医 try (doctor) oneself;try home treatment
※受~治疗
-服用抗高血压药剂 receive antihypertensive drugs
-使~服抗结刻剂 put one on antituberculosis drugs before one goes surgery
-替~打一支盘尼西林 give one a shot of penicillin
-经过顺利 have an uncomplicated course
-开刀后经过顺利、满意、不顺、(不)良 postoperative course was uneventful
,satisfactory, stormy, (un)favorable
-become convalescent
ex1:He did not receive any specific therapy but was treated symptomatically.
ex2:Past history revealed an episode of gonorrhea in 1957 which was successfully
treated by antibiotics.

六、现症历Present Illness
(1)他在1960年9月生了病;疲劳渐渐加重,周身不适,并且体重减轻。
He became ill in Sept. 1960, with gradually increasing fatigue, general malaise
and loss of weight.
※疾病的发生
-开始头痛 started having the headaches
-开始发生紫绀 began having episodes of cyanosis
-开始感觉疲劳 began feeling tired
-变成稍一用力即会喘息 became breathless on the least exertion
-发觉开始过度疲劳 noted the onset of excessive fatigue
-晚餐时饮酒差不多一定会引起发作 a supper drink almost invariably provokes
an attack
-不能恢复以前的那种活力 fail to regain one's previous vitality and vigor
-开始觉得比以前更加容易疲倦 began to fell more easily fatigued
ex1:The disease began (occurred ; started) 3 months ago. It progressed , slowly
but steadily until today.
ex2: In the spring of 1958 he first noticed (noted; perceived; recognized) easy
fatiguability.
※初发病型
ex1: He became increasingly subject to fits of temper.
ex2: He suddenly developed weakness in the right leg.
(2)她的膀胱过敏症消失,但在1960年秋天复发。
Her symptoms of bladder irritability subsided, but recurred in the autumn of 1960.
※病征
-有疼痛和已述的症状 pain plus the symptoms already mentioned
-想把症状和~关连起来 attempt to correlated symptoms with~
-症状自然消退 symptoms spontaneously regressed
-症状消失(并未缓和) symptoms disappeared (did not abate)
-症状忽缓忽急 symptoms waxed and waned from time to time
-不留意症状 give the symptoms no concern
-忽略( 不理) 症状 disregard (dismiss) symptoms
-对症状不甚留意 do not pay much attention to the symptoms
-对孩子们显得不关心、冷淡 one appeared uninterested and uninformed about
one's children
-呕吐是~发病的前驱症状 vomiting heralded the onset of one's symptoms
-~的病有伤寒的样子 one's illness assumed the character of typhus
-再发(have a) relapse;recur; recurrence
-疾病无再发征象 no evidence of recurrent disease
-同一症候再发 the return of the same symptoms
ex1: He had (presented; developed; showed; manifested) mild symptoms of
diphtheria.
ex2: There have been concurrent heartburn and eructation.
※无~症状
ex1: The carious tooth has persisted for years without clinical symptoms.
ex2: He continued remarkably free of symptoms except for aural discharge
until Nov. 1961.
(3)他记得一年前,在同一季节里,有过一次同样的发作。
He remembered a similar attack a year before in the same season.
※发作
-一时性眩晕 transitory attacks of dizziness
-发作不规则 attacks are variable
-发作变了型态 the attacks changed pattern
-患急性关节炎 have acute attacks of arthritis
-发作多半在夜间发生 attacks occurred chiefly at night
-患2次肺炎 had 2 episodes of pneumonia
-发生癫痫样的发作 developed seizures of an epiletic nature
-发作前后觉得舒适 feel well between attacks
-平均继续了3~4分钟 lasted on average 3 to 4 minutes
-一年来没有发作 have been free of attacks for one year
-发作停止(消失,完全消失)了 attacks ceased ( subsided, clear up completely)
ex1: A similar attack appeared in the following morning. It ran the same course as
the first one.
ex2: The most recent episode occurred approximately one month before his first
visit to the clinic.
※发作时间
-B随A A is followed by B : B follows A
-A与B同时发生 A is associated with B
-和~有关系 have (make) relation to~
-和~不相关 have (make) no relation to~
-似乎与姿势、咳嗽、过度用力无关 appeared unrelated to position, coughing,
or straining.
ex1: The attacks were preceded by 3 or 4 hour prodromes of nausea, abdominal
distention, diarrhea or constipation, followed by 5 to 6 hour period of
cramping abdominal pain and bile-stained vomiting, terminated by transient
diarrhea.
ex2: The pain was described as being of a cramping nature and sometimes
appeared to be related to the ingestion of cold water or milk.
(4)每天服用pyrazinamide 4次,每次75mg.后,咳嗽减少,痰亦减半,热度
也降低。
With pyrazinamide, 75 mg. 4 times daily, there was improvement of cough, a 50
per cent decline in sputum, and a reduction of fever.
※症状的减轻和消失
-转佳 take a favorable turn ; take a turn for the better ; improve
-显著减轻 decrease drastically (markedly)
ex1: Such attacks usually subside promptly with rest, in an hour or so , sometimes
in a few minutes.
ex2: The swelling of the legs disappeared within about a week.
(5)疼痛发生于饭后,便秘发生后,疼痛更加厉害,期间也较长。
The pain came on after meals and became more severe and lasted longer with
the onset of constipation.
※症状的恶化
-恶化 take a bad turn ; take a turn for the worse; be aggravated (exacerbated)
-显著地恶化 became noticeably worse
-渐趋显著 became increasingly apparent
-黄疸总是恶化 have frequent exacerbations of jaundice
-病入膏肓 one's case is incorrigible
-病状时愈时犯 one's illness hangs in the balance
ex1: During the last 6 weeks he has observed progressive shortness of breath
on exertion.
ex2: The pain was aggravated by exercise and alleviated somewhat by lying down.
(6)他的一般情形,一直没有变化。
His general condition continued without change.
※症状无变化
ex1: He remained about the same a yesterday.
ex2: His headache has persisted (continued) to date ( the present).
 

Exercise1
1.家族历无先天性疾病。
2.据他说,他家里没有人患与此相同的病。
3.家族历无特别记载事项。
4.他有出血倾向。
5.从家族历看来,母方有血友病的遗传。
6.他出生于健康而无精神疾遗传的家庭。
7.他父亲的死因不明。
8.他在28岁时,死于肺结核。
9.他在发病后5天就死了。
10.他在清晨1点25分去世。

1.
a)The family history revealed (disclosed, showed, indicated) no congenital disease.
b)No F.H. of congenital disease was elicited (present).
c)There was no history of congenital disease in the family.
d)The family had no history of congenital disease.
e)There was nothing in the F.H. suggestive of (to suggest) congenital disease.
f)There was no congenital disease in the family history.

2.
a)According to his statement, no other members of his family have ever had
(contracted) the same disease.
b)From his statement, there was no similar disease in the other member of his
family.
c)He stated (said, related, claimed, alleged, affirmed) that no other members of
his family were similarly affected.

3.
a)The family history was noncontributory (unavailable).
b)F.H. was not remarkable (contributory).
c)F.H. revealed nothing remarkable (particular, significant, worth recording)
d)No particular data were available about the family history.
e)There was no relevant family history.
f)F.H.:Nothing relevant was indicated.

4.
a)He has a bleeding tendency.
b)He has a tendency to bleed.
c)He is inclined to bleed.

5.
a)F.H. revealed that hemophilia is transmitted (inherited) on the maternal side.
b)Judging from the family history, hemophilia ran in the maternal line.
c)In the family history there was a hemophiliac tendency on the maternal side.

6.
a)He was born in a healthy family without any evidence of hereditary psychosis.
b)He was (descended) from a family, healthy and free from hereditary psychosis.
c)He came from a healthy family without the slightest trace of hereditary
psychosis.

7.
a)The cause of his father's death is unknown (uncertain, undetermined).
b)His father died from an unknown cause.
c)His father died without definite cause.

8.
a)He died at the age of twenty-eight of pulmonary tuberculosis.
b)TB caused (brought about) his death at 28.
c)He died of TB in his 28th year.

9.
a)He died 5 days after he became sick.
b)Five days after the onset of his illness he died.
c)After an illness of 5 days he died.

10.
a)He died at 1:25 a.m.
b)He was found dead in bed at 1:25 a.m.
c)His respirations ceased at 1:25 a.m.
 

七、陈诉 Complaint
(1)陈诉的写法
ex1:因为以前患过结核病,他有时诉说咳嗽、胸部不舒服和疲劳。
Having suffered from tuberculosis in the past, he complained occasionally
of coughing, chest discomfort, and prostration.
ex2:她在1961年住院,诉说最近发生中胸部痛、呼吸短促和心悸。
In 1961 she was admitted to the hospital complaining of (with complaint of
;because of ) mid-chest pain of recent onset, breathlessness and
palpitations.

(2)~感
-恐惧(眩晕、恶心、寒颤)感 a sensation of fear (giddiness, nausea, chill)
-异物(压迫、窒息、烧灼、寒颤)感 foreign body (oppressive, strangling,
burning, chilly) sensation (feeling)
-喉头的痒感 itching sensation in one's larynx
-模糊不舒服的感觉 vague ill feeling
-咽喉上的束紧感 a feeling of constriction in one's throat
-在咽喉右边的微痒感 a tickling feeling in the right side of the throat
-在~后头部的特殊、难堪的感觉 a peculiar, weighty feeling in the back
of one's head
-在右上腹部深处的模糊不舒适感 a vague sense of unease deep in the
right upper abdominal quadrant
ex1:她近来感觉,似有东西压在膀胱上。
She has recently had (experienced) a sensation of something pressing on
the bladder.
ex2:他面部有麻木感。
He has a feeling of numbness of his face.

(3)主诉:应尽可能引用病人的话,说出现症的主要症状,经过期间和找
医师看病的原因。记述需扼要简明并避免含糊语句,常用可用
简写的方式。
ex1:从昨晚饭后,病人一直感觉寒战。
Patient has had chills after dinner since last evening.

可简写为Chills since last evening.
ex2:主诉:胃肿胀已4个月。
C.C.:“Swelling of the stomach“ for 4 months.
ex3:2,3个月来,一做工就感觉呼吸困难和眩晕。
For 2 or 3 months, dyspnea and dizziness on work.

(4)病历的申述
-不完全可靠 be not entirely reliable
-不甚明晰 be not clearly defined
-有些模糊 be somewhat vague
-无法获得 be unobtainable
-不能申述适当的病历 can give no adequate history
-混乱不很肯定 be uncertain and confused
ex1:关于既往症,他不能提供可靠的报告。
He could not give reliable information concerning former illness.
ex2:因为他有精神激动,无法获得可靠的病历。
Because of his mental agitation, no reliable history could be obtained.

(5)因~病而转入~科治疗
ex1:她因为在皮肤科住院治疗未见转好,而被介绍过来。
She was referred because there had been no relief with dermatologic
treatment, including hospitalization.
ex2:此病人现年27岁,是刚离婚的经产妇,经一所地方医院诊断 为阴道肿瘤而转入本院。
The patient was a 27-year-old recently divorced multipara referred from
a district hospital with a diagnosis of a vaginal tumor.

(6)全身状态
-精力缺失 lack of energy
-只诉说全身无力 complain only a slight generalized weakness
-觉得遍身无力 feel week all over
-不可言状的眩晕 nondescript dizziness
-胸骨下方的不舒服灼感 substernal burning discomfort
-饭后腹上部窘迫感 postprandial epigastric distress
-心脏部疼痛 precordial pain
-胸内苦闷或重压感 precordial oppression;pressure on the chest;
tightness in the chest
-全年性的过敏性鼻炎 perennial allergic rhinitis
-季节性的支气管性喘息 seasonal bronchial asthma
-一直不断地说胃痛和头痛 incessant complaints of stomach pains and
headaches
-尤其喝一杯牛奶后,有些不舒服的饱胀感 some uncomfortable full
feeling especially after drinking one glass of milk
-偶而一时丧失意识 have occasional blackouts
-肩僵硬 stiff shoulder
-觉气闷,觉气息不舒 feel stifling (suffocating)
-感觉疲乏 become tired ( fatigued, weary);have a tired feeling;feel
languid
-觉全身寒栗 feel a cold shuddering pass all through~
-觉得浑身发冷 fell a chill creep over~
-头晕目眩 one's eyes swim in one's head
-(~的)脚麻木 have a charlie horse (in one's leg)
ex1:他差不多不断地诉说饭后呕吐。
He complained almost ceaselessly of postprandial nausea.
ex2:全身虚弱,而腿痛变得很厉害。
There was general debility, and pain in the legs become excruciating.
 

exercise2

1.从前他一天抽一包烟,现在抽得更多。
2.10年来,他一直喝大量的酒。
3.他曾戒过酒,但无法戒掉。
4.他每在晚餐时,喝一点酒。
5.他滴酒不沾唇。
6.他一向操劳过度,以致患病。
7.他一连工作8小时,也不会感觉疲倦。
8.这婴儿是经过足月的怀孕后,正常生产的。
9.他因身体欠佳,一直到40岁才结婚。
10.她已结婚5年,仍未生育。
11.他早睡迟起。

1.
a)He used to smoke a package of cigarettes a day, and now he smokes more than that.
b)In the past he smoked a pack of cigarettes every day and now it is on the increase.
c)Formerly he smoked daily a pack of cigarettes but now a little more than that.

2.
a)He has a history of excessive alcoholic intake during the past 10 years.
b)He has drunk hard ( to excess; immoderately) for 10 years.
c)He has been a heavy( hard; great) drinker since 10 years ago.

3.
a)In spite of everything( Though he had tried) to stop drinking, he did not succeed.
b)He had abstained from drinking, but he still found it hard to rid himself of the habit.
c)He had given up drinking once, but without a complete success.

4.
a)He drinks a little at supper time.
b)He always takes small evening drink( cups).
c)He drinks some wine at supper.

5.
a)He does not drink at all.
b)He does not touch glass.
c)He is a teetotaler( total abstainer).

6.
a)He used to overwork and this caused his illness.
b)As a result of constant overwork in the past he became ill.
c)His sickness was induced by constant overwork.

7.
a)He could work 8 hours running without getting tired.
b)He did not get tired working 8 hours straight.
c)He could work 8 hours at a stretch without fatigue.
d)He could work for eight consecutive hours without feeling tired.

8.
a)This infant, having been at full term, was born without any difficulty.
b)This infant was given a normal birth after full gestation.
c)This infant was born at full term with normal delivery.

9.
a)He did not get married until forty because of his poor health.
b)Because of physical weakness he remained unmarried until 40.
c)Physical weakness prevented him from getting married until 40.

10.
a)She has been married for 5 years, but she still remains sterile.
b)She has been married for 5 years, but has never been pregnant.
c)She has no child after 5 years of marriage.

11.
a)He goes to bed early but rises late.
b)He has a habit of going to bed early and getting up late.
c)He is used to going to bed early and rising late.

 
八、发烧 Fever

(1)3天来,口腔温度从摄氏37度6分,一直升到摄氏40度。
The temperature has risen steadily from 37.6°C to 40°C orally over the past 3 days.
※发烧
-发烧 become feverish; have a temperature
-发高烧 have a high fever
-平常有微热,有几次升到38.4度 have low-grade (slight) fever to 38.4°C on a few occasions
-没有发烧 be afebrile; have no fever
ex1:在发烧期间,他的平均体温是摄氏39度。
He ran a febrile course with an average temperature of 39°C.
ex2:他在患病期间尿量减少,并且发烧。
He was obliguric and feverish (febrile) throughout the course.

※体温升高
-体温上升 have an elevation of temperature
-发高烧伴随恶寒 have high temp. associated with chill
-体温升升,有恶寒 have chills with high temperature
ex1: 体温升到摄氏39度2,腹部也明显地膨胀了起来。
The temp. rose( went up ) to 39.2°C and the abdominal distension became marked.
ex2:最近8天的口腔温度升到37.8°C,但后来一直在37.2°C以下。
The oral temp. was elevated to 37.8°C during the past 8 days, but thereafter remained below 37.2°C.

(2)大约在4月底,他的体温,自然地降到摄氏37度。
About the end of April, his temperature dropped to 37°C spontaneously.
※体温降低
-体温急速下降 one's fever falls (abates; declines) promptly
-体温开始减低 fever began to remit
-体温似乎是减退了 fever seemed to abate
-体温降到正常 fever dropped (was reduced) to normal
-体温慢慢地下降(上升) with slow lysis ( cirsis) of fever
-体温一天一天地低下来 fever became lower day by day
ex1:2天前的体温几乎恢复正常,今天再升到摄氏38.3度了。
The fever, which went down almost to normal 2 days ago, rose to 38.3°C again today.
ex2:病发后10天就退烧了。
Fever disappeared 10 days after onset of illness.

(3)他的直肠体温,下午一直停留在摄氏40度。
He continued to have a temperature with spiking in the afternoon to 40°C by recutum.
※体温不退
ex1:已发烧10天;但最后3天未高过37度2分。
Fever was present for 10 days; it did not exceed 37.2°C during the last 3 days.
ex2:最初24小时的体温,在摄氏37.2与38.3度之间。
The temperature during the first 24 hours varied between 37.2°C and 38.3°C.

九、食欲 Appetite, 体重 Weight

(1)他说他胃口一直很好,什么东西都能吃。
He stated that he had always had a good stomach and could eat anything.
※食欲良好
-过食 eat too much ( to excess ; heavily) ; overeat; be intemperate in eating
-吃得多 (胃口大开地吃) eat profusely ( with a good appetite)
-保持良好食欲 retained an excellent appetite
-食欲增进 one's appetite improved
-食欲有节制 (食欲旺盛,贪食不饱) have a moderate (good, enormous) appetite
-无食欲障碍 one's appetite is undisturbed
-食不过饱的人 a moderate ( spare; light) eater
-过饱的人 a heavy (great; hard) eater
-食量 capacity for eating
ex1:他的食欲良好,但他平常的吃食习惯,由于口里伤处而中断。
His appetite was good, but the sore place in his mouth interrupted his usual eating habit.
ex2:他对食物有无法控制的喜好,用膳时喝很多水。
He had an uncontrollable mania for food, drinking water freely with the meals.
※无食欲
-无食欲 have no (little) appetite ( for food); lose ( have no) relish for one's food; loss ( lack) of appetite; loss of interest in food
-发觉( 有点) 食欲不振 noted ( minimal) anorexia
-食欲不定( 无食欲障碍) one's appetite is variable ( undisturbed)
-食欲反复无常 have a capricious appetite
-食欲不佳 have a poor (feeble; weak; delicate) appetite
-胃口变得更加不好 became more anorexic
-失去平常的食欲 lose one's usual appetite
-食欲减退 appetite decreases ( reduces; declines; falls off)
-吃得少 eat poorly (sparingly) ;take little food; poor food intake
-不想吃 be disinclined to eat
-取食不规则 eat irregularly
-停吃 cease eating
-促进食欲 improve (stimulate; sharpen; whet) the appetite
ex1:他无胃口,只吃了一点点东西。
He had no appetite and only picked at the food.
ex2:他的胃口不如以前,甚至以前喜欢吃的也不例外。
Meals and drinks taste no more as before, and he is indifferent even to his favorite food.
※未进食物
ex1:他整天没有吃什么,只吃几口稀饭。
He eats nothing for a whole day, but he takes some mouthfuls of rice gruel.
ex2:他从前天中午起,就没有吃东西。
He has tasted no food since noon the day before yesterday.

(2)他诉说非常口渴,但一点食欲也没有。
He complains of his thirst hard to release, while he has absolutely no appetite.
※口渴
-口渴 be (feel) thirsty
-口一直很渴 continue to have excessive thirst
-喝大量的水 drink water generously
-对碳酸饮料发生不寻常的爱好 develop an unusual craving for carbonated beverages
-要~少喝茶水 be advised to decrease one's tea drinking

(3)食欲正常,但体重却在一年之内减轻了4公斤。
In spite of the normal appetite, he lost 4 kg. in weight over a period of one year.
※体重减轻
-住院时体重 admission weight
-最高(最低)体重 maximal ( minimal) weight
-体重减少,但未知多少 weight loss of undetermined amount
-通常在夏季体重减轻 usually lose weight in the summer months
-体重以惊人的速度减少 lose weight with alarming speed
-体重始终一样 weight remained stationary (steady)
-体重不变 weight is stable ( unchanged)
-体重维持不变 weight is well-maintained
-体重老是50公斤 one's weight is constant ( maintained) at 50 kg.
-虽然食量增加,体重却减轻了6公斤 lost 6 kg. in spite of increased intake of food
ex1:他在上2个月内,体重减轻了8公斤。
He developed weight loss totalling 8 kg. in the previous 2 months.
ex2:他的胃口变得很大,食物热量增加2倍,但体重却减轻了10公斤。
His appetite became ravenous and his caloric intake doubled, yet he lost 10 kg.
 

exercise3

1.他想不起患过什么病。
2.他自幼健康,不曾患过大病。
3.他没患过白喉。
4.他否认在军队时,得过性病。
5.他说幼年时一直闹病。
6.他除患高血压一年外,无其它病诉。
7.他在生后6个月,种过痘。
8.他因身体虚弱,容易生病。
9.在1957年,他因治疗胸膜炎,住过院。
10.他在开刀后5天,便出院了。
11.他因阑尾炎开过刀。
12.去年他患了肾脏炎,但经过良好,现已痊愈了。

1.
a)He could not remember (recall) what disease he has ever had.
b)He had no memory of ever having had any disease.
c)He had no recollection of any previous disease.

2.
a)He has been thoroughly sound since his childhood, and has never had any serious disease.
b)He has been in good health from his childhood and has had no history of serious disease.
c)He has been healthy without any serous disease since his childhood.

3.
a)He had no past (previous; prior) history of diphtheria.
b)His P.H. showed no (did not show) diphtheria.
c)He did not have a history of diphtheria.
d)There was no diphtheria in his P.H.

4.
a)He denied that he contracted V.D. during his military service.
b)He denied contracting V.D. while he was in the army.

5.
a)He said that he was often ill in his childhood.
b)He said that during( throughout) his childhood he was always troubled by disease.

6.
a)He states that there is no complaint other than hypertension lasting for a year.
b)He is free from any disease except for one year history of hypertension.
c)Apart from hypertension of one year's duration he is in good health.

7.
a)He was vaccinated (inoculated) against smallpox when he was six months old.
b)He received( took; underwent) a smallpox vaccination at six months of age.

8.
a)Because he is frail, he is prone to illness.
b)He is delicate and susceptible to disease.
c)He is liable (predisposed) to get sick, because of physical weakness.

9.
a)He was admitted to the hospital for treatment of pleurisy in 1957.
b)He was hospitalized for pleurisy in 1957.
c)In 1957 he went to the hospital to have his pleurisy treated.

10.
a)Five days after an operation, he left the hospital.
b)He was discharged( dismissed) from the hospital on the 5th postoperative day.
c)He left the hospital 5 days after he underwent an operation.

11.
a)His P.H. revealed an appendectomy.
b)He had (underwent) an appendectomy.
c)He had an operation ( a surgery) for appendicitis.
d)He was operated for appendicitis.
e)He gave a P.H. of appendectomy performed.

12.
a)He suffered from nephritis last year, but its course was uneventful and now he was cured perfectly.
b)He had nephritis last year, and after favorable course he made a full (complete) recovery and regained his health.
c)Last year he developed nephritis which ran an uneventful course and he recovered completely with no sequela ( residual).
 

十、睡眠 Sleep

(1)发作通常发生于饭后1~2小时,但也时常把病人从睡梦中弄醒。
Attacks usually came on one or two hours after meals, but also frequently wakened the patient from sleep.
※睡眠障碍
-非常爱睡 be unusually sleepy
-贪睡 be fond of sleep
-无法控制的嗜睡 uncontrollable somnolence (-cy)
-易醒 be easily wakened
-时常在晚上醒过来 often wake up at night.
-不能熟睡 sleep is not sound
-晚上睡得不很熟 do not sleep well at night
-睡觉不能多过数小时 sleep for no longer than a few hours.
-由于呼吸短促睡不着 have sleepless night with shortness of breath
-今年冬天由于夜间性气喘一直失眠 had insomnia this winter due to nocturnal asthma
-患失眠症 have (develop) insomnia
-睡眠不足 want( lack) of sleep; insufficient sleep
-不易入睡 have trouble getting to sleep
-睡眠无多大的障碍 sleep is not greatly disturbed
-失眠病人 insomniac
ex1:他不能静坐数分钟以上,即使静脉注射镇静剂,也不能睡觉。
He was unable to sit still for more than a few minutes, and sleep was impossible even with intravenous sedatives.
ex2:因为他有点挂虑他的病,最近一直睡眠不佳。
His sleep has been poor lately due to a slight anxiety about his illness.

(2)他非常容易入睡,特别是晚睡时为然。早上则总是起不来。
He falls into a sleep very easily, especially when sitting up late. He has always had difficulty in getting up early in the morning.
ex1:他总是感觉疲倦,每天大约需要睡12个小时。
He felt chronically tired, requiring about 12 hours of sleep a day.
ex2:他老是想睡,但从来不曾在8点后才睡。
He is always inclined to go to sleep, and he never goes to bed later than 8 o'clock.
 

十一、神经精神系统 Neuropsychiatric

(1)他数星期来,有好几次在眩晕前,意识突然发生变化。
He had several sudden alterations in consciousness preceded by dizziness for several weeks.
※神经症状
-一般用语 vertigo, dizziness, dizzy spell, syncope, fainting, sleepy, drowsy,
lethargic, insomnia, hiccough, convulsion, seizure, trembling, involuntary
movement, numbness, weakness, incoordination, clumsiness of motion, tingling,
unsteadiness in walking, difficulty in walking, paresthesia, anesthesia, paralysis,
myalgia, thick speech, aphonia
ex1:他发觉,说话障碍逐渐厉害起来。
He noted a progressive speech impediment.
ex2:他不能用病侧脚尖站着。
He was unable to stand on tiptoe on the affected limb.

(2)他的情绪容易突变,且会无缘无故地愠怒和哭泣。
He is liable to sudden changes of mood and would sulk and cry for no apparent reason.
※抑郁
-一般用语 despondent, gloomy, worried, disgusted, discouraged, scared, fearful,
low, afraid, angry, blue ; cheerful, optimistic, pessimistic, satisfied, stable, fluctuating, hilarious
-喜欢小题大做的 fussy
-好管闲事的 noisy
-吹毛求疵的 fault-finding
-自负的 conceited
-很势利的 snobbish
-自私的 selfish
-吝啬的 stingy
-气量大的 broad-minded
-慷慨的 generous
-好心的 kind-hearted
-心情变幻不定而抑郁的 be moody and depressed
-患有极痛苦的忧虑 have an attack of excruciating anxiety
ex1:His mood was appropriate.
ex2:His mood was mainly euphoric and expansive.
※思考能力
-一般用语 think less clearly, decreased speed of thinking, decreased clarity of
thought, flight of ideas, loss of mental vigor , mental apathy
-再也不能集中心力 can no longer concentrate
-发觉集中力减退 noted waning powers of concentration
ex1:她发觉在读习和写作时,注意力有点不易集中。
She noted only slight difficulty in concentrating while reading and writing.

(3)他迷妄,有生动的幻觉,并且不能说出连贯的病历。
He was deluded, vividly hallucinated, and unable to give any coherent history.
※精神异常
-一般用语 hallucination, delusion of persecution(被害妄想), mental confusion,
disorientation, mental aberration, negativism, loss of memory, amnesia, mutism, etc.
-老是发出痴呆、不适当的笑声 frequently exhibit silly inappropriate laughter
-对其他小孩残酷无情 behave brutally toward other children
-变为难于驾御 become unmanageable
-发觉个性显著变化 a definite personality change is noted
-精神失常逐渐厉害起来 have gradually progressive mental deterioration.
-发觉记性障碍有2个月 noted memory impairment for 2 months.

(4)她显示出心情、情绪反常的显著倾向。
She manifested a marked tendency toward destructiveness and disturbance of mood
and affect.
※性癖异常
-一般用语 emotional instability, tendency to worry, hot temper, temper outbursts,
irritable, shy, fussy, quarrelsome
-情绪非常窘迫 be in severe increasing emotional lability
-心神不安宁,坐立不安 be restless and fidgety
-动辄生气 be easily moved to anger
-脾气暴躁 have temper tantrums
-深怀自卑感 harborn deep feelings of inferiority
ex1:病人的健康状态良好,情绪似使正常。
The patient is in good condition and seems to be emotionally undisturbed.
ex2:他老是神经过敏,自从心悸发生后更加厉害。
He was always a 'nervous' person but more so since the onset of palpitation.
 

十二、疼痛 Pain

(1)当上楼梯时,突然痛了起来,并且持续不止。
The pain came on suddenly while walking up the stairs and it was persistent.
※疼痛的发生
-感觉疼痛 feel (have; suffer from) a pain; pain is felt in ; feel painful
-头痛 have a headache; be troubled with a headache; feel a pain in one's head
-患剧烈头痛 have a nasty (bad) headache
-时常头痛 be subject (a martyr) to headaches
-有撞击似的两侧性头痛 have bilateral pounding headaches
-头痛逐渐地变为频发( 较不严重) headaches gradually become more frequent
(less severe)
ex1:咀嚼时,有偶发的、暂时的、不可言状的疼痛或敏感。
There is occasional, transient, nondescript pain, or sensibility during mastication.
ex2:该齿对于压迫作痛,且有钝麻如咬的疼痛。
The tooth became sore to pressure and there is a dull gnawing pain.
※发生时间
ex1:Epigastric pain comes immediately after meal.
ex2:Colic pain came on and off since yesterday.
ex3:This pain has been relentlessly postprandial, regardless of the character of her
meals.
ex4:The joint pains were present mainly at night, with relief during the day.
ex5:The mild frontal headaches were usually present upon awakening, but not severe enough to require analgesics.
ex6:The pain usually commenced within 30 minutes after meals and lasted 1 to 3
hours.
※发生原因
ex1:He described the pain as dull and aching, occurring approximately once a week,
unrelated to food intake, and radiating to his back.

(2)起初疼痛无变化,但数小时时变成发作性的痛。
The pain initially was steady, but after several hours became episodic.
※疼痛的种类
-恒常(痛) constant
-间歇(痛) intermittent
-偶(痛) occasional
-急性(痛) acute
-钝麻(痛),闷(痛) dull
-搏动性的 throbbing
-抽搐(痛)tic
-抽(痛) twinge
-锐(痛),急(痛) sharp
-刺(射)痛 stabbing ( shooting) pain
-钻锥(痛) boring
-穿刺(痛) piercing
-窜(痛) darting
-被咬样的(痛) gnawing
-似裂(痛) tearing (splitting)
-胀(痛) bursting
-刀割样(痛) knife-like
-痉挛(痛) crampy
-拉(痛) dragging
-箍(痛) girdle-like ( constricting)
-痛得打滚 writhing
-极痛的 excruciating
-切割的(痛) lancinating
-绞性痛 colic (colicky pain)
-剧痛 severe ( pungent; intense)
-感应痛 referred pain
-坠痛 bearing-down pain
-发生遍身的酸痛 develop diffuse body aching
-有剧烈的骨盘痛 have exquisite pelvic pain
-牙痛频发 continual bouts of toothache
-一阵阵剧烈的牙痛 the pangs of a toothache
-带有胸膜炎性状的右胸痛 right-sided pain of a pleuritic character
-发生阵痛性的疼痛 have labor-like pains
ex1:这痛是持续不变的,若刺的剧痛。
The pain was steady, sharp and boring in nature ( character).
ex2:该痛和她以前诉过的疼痛一样。
The pain was identical with what she had complained of.
※疼痛再发
-pain reappears ( relapses); pain breaks out again; a return of the pain
ex1:左乳房下的疼痛时时再发,而不是持续性的。
The pain under the left breast recurred at intervals but was not constant.
ex2:疼痛很少在他晚餐后再发,同时喝牛奶或服用抑酸剂,对于疼痛并无影响。
The pain rarely returned after his evening meal and it was not affected when he
ingested milk or antacid.

(3)有时疼痛放射到右下肢后侧,一直到脚部。
At times pain radiates down the back of the right lower extremity to the foot.
※疼痛放射
-pain radiates ( travels) to ~; pain radiating from ~ to ~; radiation of the pain to ~
ex1:疼痛放射到腰部周围,躺下时缓和些,站立时加剧。
The pain radiated around toward the groin, relieved by lying down and aggravated
while standing.
ex2:住院那天,他感到疼痛加剧,并且放射到右肩胛和肩部。
On the day of admission he experienced increasingly severe pain with radiation to the right scapular area and shoulders.

(4)这疼痛局限于正中线,因吃力的劳动而加剧。
The pain was confined to the midline and was aggravated by heavy labor.
※疼痛部位
-疼痛存在于 the pain is limited to; the pain is located ( localized; situated) in (or
over) ; there is localized pain in ~
-遍在痛 generalized ( general; extensive; unlocalized) pain
ex1:起初,疼痛遍及整个腹部,后来它局限于右上象限。
At first the pain was generalized in the ( whole) abdomen; but it subsequently
localized to the R.U.Q.
ex2:起于右下腹部的疼痛,不久便局限于左上腹部。
The pain, which began ( originated) in the R.L.Q., soon became localized in the L.U.Q.
※疼痛减轻
-疼痛减轻 pain is relieved by , relieve ( ease, allay, alleviate, assuage, abate,
soothe) the pain, pains decrease ( grow less, go down , fall off)
-疼痛减轻了 the pain became lighter
-疼痛的严重度减少 the severity of the pain waned
-疼痛未停止 the pain did no ease
ex1:疼痛和腹泻都减轻,但自从那时起,他就感觉疲倦和衰弱。
The pain and diarrhea abated, but he felt tired and weak since then.
ex2:胸部痛有时因改变体位而减轻,但只是暂时而已。
The chest pain is sometimes relieved by a change of position, but only temporarily.
※疼痛加剧
ex1:虽然没有肋膜带性状,但这痛因深吸气而显著加剧。
The pain was markedly accentuated by deep inspiration, although it was not pleuritic
in nature.
ex2:当他在晚上作偏右侧睡时,疼痛最厉害。
The pain is most severe at night when he lies on his right side.

 
十二、疼痛 Pain

(1)当上楼梯时,突然痛了起来,并且持续不止。
The pain came on suddenly while walking up the stairs and it was persistent.
※疼痛的发生
-感觉疼痛 feel (have; suffer from) a pain; pain is felt in ; feel painful
-头痛 have a headache; be troubled with a headache; feel a pain in one's head
-患剧烈头痛 have a nasty (bad) headache
-时常头痛 be subject (a martyr) to headaches
-有撞击似的两侧性头痛 have bilateral pounding headaches
-头痛逐渐地变为频发( 较不严重) headaches gradually become more frequent (less severe)
ex1:咀嚼时,有偶发的、暂时的、不可言状的疼痛或敏感。
There is occasional, transient, nondescrpit pain, or sensibility during mastication.
ex2:该齿对于压迫作痛,且有钝麻如咬的疼痛。
The tooth became sroe to pressure and there is a dull gnawing pain.
※发生时间
ex1:Epigastric pain comes immediately after meal.
ex2:Colic pain came on and off since yesterday.
ex3:This pain has been relentlessly postprandial, regardless of the character of her meals.
ex4:The joint pains were present mainly at night, with reief during the day.
ex5:The mild frontal headaches were usually present upon awakening, but not severe enough to require analgesics.
ex6:The pain ususally commenced within 30 minutes after meals and lasted 1 to 3 hours.
※发生原因
ex1:He described the pain as dull and aching, occurring approximately once a week, unrelated to food intake, and radiating to his back.

(2)起初疼痛无变化,但数小时时变成发作性的痛。
The pain initially was steady, but after several hours became episodic.
※疼痛的种类
-恒常(痛) constant
-间歇(痛) intermittent
-偶(痛) occasional
-急性(痛) acute
-钝麻(痛),闷(痛) dull
-搏动性的 throbbing
-抽搐(痛)tic
-抽(痛) twinge
-锐(痛),急(痛) sharp
-刺(射)痛 stabbing ( shooting) pain
-钻锥(痛) boring
-穿刺(痛) piercing
-窜(痛) darting
-被咬样的(痛) gnawing
-似裂(痛) tearing (splitting)
-胀(痛) bursting
-刀割样(痛) knife-like
-痉挛(痛) crampy
-拉(痛) dragging
-箍(痛) girdle-like ( constricting)
-痛得打滚 writhing
-极痛的 excruciating
-切割的(痛) lancinating
-绞性痛 colic (colicky pain)
-剧痛 severe ( pungent; intense)
-感应痛 referred pain
-坠痛 bearing-down pain
-发生遍身的酸痛 develop diffuse body aching
-有剧烈的骨盘痛 have exquistie pelvic pain
-牙痛频发 continual bouts of toothache
-一阵阵剧烈的牙痛 the pangs of a toothache
-带有胸膜炎性状的右胸痛 right-sided pain of a pleuritic character
-发生阵痛性的疼痛 have labor-like pains
ex1:这痛是持续不变的,若刺的剧痛。
The pain was steady, sharp and boring in nature ( character).
ex2:该痛和她以前诉过的疼痛一样。
The pain was indentical with what she had complained of.
※疼痛再发
-pain reappers ( relapses); pain breaks out again; a return of the pain
ex1:左乳房下的疼痛时时再发,而不是持续性的。
The pain under the left breast recurred at intervals but was not constant.
ex2:疼痛很少在他晚餐后再发,同时喝牛奶或服用抑酸剂,对于疼痛并无影响。
The pain rarely returned after his evening meal and it was not affected when he ingested milk or antacid.

(3)有时疼痛放射到右下肢后侧,一直到脚部。
At times pain radiates down the back of the right lower extremity to the foot.
※疼痛放射
-pain radiates ( travels) to ~; pain radiating from ~ to ~; radiation of the pain to ~
ex1:疼痛放射到腰部周围,躺下时缓和些,站立时加剧。
The pain radiated around toward the groin, relieved by lying down and aggravated while standing.
ex2:住院那天,他感到疼痛加剧,并且放射到右肩胛和肩部。
On the day of admission he experienced increasingly severe pain with radiation to the right scapular area and shoulders.

(4)这疼痛局限于正中线,因吃力的劳动而加剧。
The pain was confined to the midline and was aggravated by heavy labor.
※疼痛部位
-疼痛存在于 the pain is limited to; the pain is located ( localized; situated) in (or over) ; there is localized pain in ~
-遍在痛 generalized ( general; extensive; unlocalized) pain
ex1:起初,疼痛遍及整个腹部,后来它局限于右上象限。
At first the pain was generalized in the ( whole) abdomen; but it subsequently localized to the R.U.Q.
ex2:起于右下腹部的疼痛,不久便局限于左上腹部。
The pain, which began ( originated) in the R.L.Q., soon became localized in the L.U.Q.
※疼痛减轻
-疼痛减轻 pain is relieved by , relieve ( ease, allay, alleviate, assuage, abate, soothe) the pain, pains decrease ( grow less, go down , fall off)
-疼痛减轻了 the pain became lighter
-疼痛的严重度减少 the severity of the pain waned
-疼痛未停止 the pain did no ease
ex1:疼痛和腹泻都减轻,但自从那时起,他就感觉疲倦和衰弱。
The pain and diarrhea abated, but he felt tired and weak since then.
ex2:胸部痛有时因改变体位而减轻,但只是暂时而已。
The chest pain is sometimes relieved by a change of position, but only temporarily.
※疼痛加剧
ex1:虽然没有肋膜带性状,但这痛因深吸气而显著加剧。
The pain was markedly accentuated by deep inspiration, although it was not pleuritic in nature.
ex2:当他在晚上作偏右侧睡时,疼痛最厉害。
The pain is most severe at night when he lies on his right side.


exercise 4

1.他不知道病的起因。
2.他的病是慢慢地发作的。
3.他上腹部突然痛起来。
4.他的病,是在住院前3星期开始的。
5.约在7个月前,他第一次发觉,吞东西不如以前顺利。
6.3天前他开始咳嗽,一直继续到现在。
7.从去年8月,他开始有食欲不振,体重减轻和发烧的症状。
8.他的症状是喉痛和无力。
9.他的消化系统,完全无症状。
10.他的老病---风湿症,又发了。
11.3天前,他的病开始好转。
12.昨天他的病更加恶化。

1.
a)He does not know why he got sick.
b)He does not know the cause of his disease.
c)He has no inkling of the cause of his disease.

2.
a)The onset of his disease is gradual.
b)His disease is gradual(insidious) in onset.
c)His disease occurred(commenced) gradually.

3.
a)He had (suffered from) a sudden epigastric pain.
b)An acute(abrupt) pain was felt in his upper abdomen.
c)He experienced a sudden attack of epigastralgia.

4.
a)His illness was first noted 3 weeks prior to admission.
b)His illness began(started; occurred) 3 weeks P.T.A.
c)He dated the onset of his illness 3 weeks P.T.A.

5.
a)About seven months ago, he first(initially) noticed (noted; perceived; found) that he
could not swallow as smoothly as before( usual).
b)Approximately seven months ago, he found for the first time that he had difficulty in swallowing.
c)For the first time he was aware(cognizant) of dysphagia about seven months ago.

6.
a)He began to have cough 3 days ago and it has continued since then.
b)His cough which started 3 days ago has persisted up to the present.
c)Three days ago he developed a cough (began or started coughing) and it has lasted until today.

7.
a)His disease began last Aug. with loss of appetite, loss of weight and fever.
b)His illness started in Aug. last year with anorexia, loss of weight and fever.
c)The symptoms of anorexia, weight loss and fever began last Aug.

8.
a)The characteristics of his disease are sore throat and weakness.
b)Sore throat and weakness are the peculiarities of his disease.
c)His disease is characterized by sore throat and weakness.

9.
a)He was entirely free of digestive system.
b)Absolutely no abnormality was found in his digestive system.
c)There was absolutely no symptom referable to his digestive system.
d)In reference to digestive system he was quite asymptomatic.

10.
a)He had a recurrence (a relapse; another attack) of his old rheumatism.
b)His old rheumatism occurred again.
c)Rheumatism, his old complaint ( fault), recurred.

11.
a)His condition began to improve 3 days ago.
b)Three days ago his condition began to make favorable progress.
c)His condition turned (changed) for the better 3 days ago.

12.
a)His condition(disease) became(got) worse yesterday.
b)His condition took a serious turn yesterday.
c)His condition took a turn for the worse yesterday.
 

十三、呼吸Resp., 咳嗽Cough, 痰Sputum

(1)他诉说被呼吸困难苦恼了好多天。
He complains of difficulty of breathing, which annoyed him for several days.
※呼吸
-呼吸困难 breathe hard (with difficulty) ; have difficulty in breathing ( respiration)
-呼吸困难 dyspnea (夜间性 nocturnal, 发作性paroxysmal)
-安静时(运动性)呼吸困难 dyspnea at rest (on exertion)
-常发生发作性夜间呼吸困难 frequent episodes of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-呼吸困难突然厉害起来 have sudden increase in dyspnea
-患轻微的运动性呼吸困难 have some mild exertional dyspnea
-患急性呼吸困难 have an acute attack of dyspnea
-无呼吸困难 have no respiratory embarrassment
-偶有心悸 have occasional palpitations
-心悸反复发生 have recurrent episodes of palpations
Ex1:第2天早晨,病人呼吸变为非常困难和衰弱。
The next morning the patient became extremely dyspneic and weak.
Ex2:走快或上楼梯时,他总是气促的。
He always becomes short-winded when walking hastily or going up stairs.

(2)这个病人常常咳嗽,并且吐出灰色的臭痰。
The patient coughs very often and expectorates foul-smelling grayish sputum.
※咳嗽
-种类 short, sharp, small, dry(hasty), moist, constant, painful, irritable, spasmodic, wheezing, distressed, rasping
-咳个不停 have a fit of coughing; cough oneself into a fit (fits)
-苦咳个不停 have a hard (racking; convulsive) cough
-患4天干燥发作性咳嗽 experience a 4-day episode of dry paroxysmal cough.
-2岁时开始有间歇性烦咳 intermittent hacking cough started at 2 years old
-咳嗽减少了 one's cough diminished
-发生轻度无痰的干咳 develop slight nonproductive cough
-有点(很多)咯血 have minimal (massive) hemoptysis.
-咯出一点血 cough (expectorate; spit) up (out) a little blood
-开始咯出黑血斑点 began coughing op flecks of dark blood
-呕血 vomit blood
Ex1:他偶而咳嗽,但不曾感觉胸部痛、发烧或体重减轻。
He coughed occasionally, but he has never experienced pain in the thorax, fever, or loss of weight.
Ex2:最近6个月,他的咳嗽一直带有轻微咯血。
For the last 6 months, he has been coughing with slight hemoptysis.


※痰
-种类 thin, thick, fetid, serous, frothy, tenacious, viscous, mucous( mucoid), mucopurulent, transparent, seropurulent, rusty
-中等量(多量、大量)带有灰白色痰的咳嗽 moderate amounts ( a great deal, large quantities) of grayish-white sputum
-痰涌上咽喉,有酸味 phlegm wells up in the throat and tastes sour
-痰堵住嗓子了 phlegm blocked the windpipe
-半杯黄色痰 one half cup of yellowish sputum
-吐脓性,偶而带血的痰 produce purulent, occasionally blood-tinged sputum
-开始有点咳嗽,并且有约3公撮的血痰 began to have some cough and produced about 3 ml. of bloody sputum.
-一点也咳不出痰 do not raise any phlegm at all
-咳痰停止了 expectoration ceased
Ex1:他开始有少量带血丝的痰。
He began to expectorate small amounts of blood-streaked sputum.
Ex2:他的咳嗽已经不像以前那样厉害,痰里也不再有血斑了。
His cough was not so severe as it had been and sputum was no longer flecked with blood.

十四、胃肠 Stomach & Bowels

(1)当空腹时,他感觉胃里不舒服。
He has a certain disagreeable felling in the stomach when it is empty.
※胃
-胃不调 upset stomach
-消化不良 have bad (impaired: defective) digestion; suffer from indigestion (
dyspepsia)
-胃有毛病 have a disordered stomach ( stomach disorder); something is wrong with one’s stomach.
-因过食而伤胃 injure one's stomach by overeating oneself
-觉食物积滞胃中 feel heavy on the stomach
-食物不易消化lie (sit) heavy on one’s stomach
Ex1:自从那时起,消化便已失常。
Thereafter, the digestion was not really good.

(2)曾有过一时性的恶心和呕吐,但并没有食欲不振或体重减少发生。
Transient nausea and vomiting was present, but no anorexia or weight loss occurred.
※恶心
-欲呕 feel nauseated
-有晨吐 have morning sickness
-夜吐(饭后恶心) nocturnal (postprandial) nausea
-晕船(车) be sea- (car-) sick
-有点恶心 have (experience) some nausea
-严重的作呕 have considerable retching
-里急后重时发生恶心和呕吐 have a spell of N & V while straining at stool
-患食欲不振和恶心 be anorexic and nauseated
-偶而恶心和呕吐 develop occasional nausea and vomiting
-老是溢酸,感觉腹胀 burp all the time, feel bloated
-吐出清净透明的胃容物 with vomiting of clear gastric contents
-呕吐停了,消失了vomiting stopped (ceased), cleared
-止吐 settle the stomach
-打噎 belch (eruct; eructate)
Ex1:这病人恶心,曾呕吐了含有胆汁液体数次。
The patient developed nausea and vomited bile-stained fluid on several occasions.
Ex2:当要呕吐时,他发觉有严重的腹上部痛和剧烈的头痛。
With the advent of vomiting, he noted severe epigastric pain as well as severe
headache.

(3)在第2天中午,她开始呕吐,随后呕吐胆汁质物。
At noon on the following day she stared vomiting food, which was followed by bile-
stained material.
※呕吐
-在病发时呕吐2次 vomit twice at the onset
-极度反胃 regurgitate food violently
Ex1:一小时后,他吐出不含血液的水质样东西。
One hour later, he vomited watery material containing no blood.
Ex2:有时这病人在发作最厉害时,呕吐1、2次。
Sometimes the patient vomited once or twice at the height of the attack.
※呕吐物
Ex1:昨天早晨的呕吐物,被形容为含有未消化的食物和绿水,无血。
The vomitus of yesterday morning was described as containing indigested food and
greenish water with no evidence of blood.
Ex2:最初的呕吐物是透明的,但据说住院治疗之前的呕吐物,带有褐色。
The vomitus was initially clear but just before hospitalization was said to brownish.

(4)他开始有多次、带泡沫和臭味的大便。
He began to have frequent, frothy, foul-smelling stools.

※大便
-解大便 open (relax; evacuate) the bowel; have a passage
-有便意 have a call of nature
-有1次(2次)大便 have a motion (two motions)
-没有大便 be constipated
-平均每天大便12次 averaged 12 stools daily
-发觉粪便中有很多血 noticed gross blood in one's stools
-开始一天解8次松的多脂粪便 began to pass 8 loose greasy stools per day
-大便增加到一天4~5次 stools increased in number to 4 or 5 daily
-更换尿布时有些粪便 have some stool in each diaper change
Ex1:大便次数减少了,但他仍然每天继续有2~3次大量的稀大便。
The stools became fewer in number but he still continued to have 2~3 large loose
stools daily.
Ex2:住院前2个月,她发觉黑色大便,但却把它忽略过去了。
Two months before admission she had noticed black stools but she disregarded them.
※大便检查
-种类 ordinary, dry, hard, loose(soft), large, watery(liquid), formed, formless, frothy, mucous, bloody, rice-water, pea-soup, tarry
-臭味 odorless, extremely foul, sour, putrid, less offensive in odor, offensive but no excessively foul
-颜色 black, tarry, brownish-black, brown, red, green, yellow, light-brown, grey-
white (clay-colored)
Ex1:大便的粗细和硬度正常,且从未呈黑色。
The stools were of normal caliber and consistency and have never been black.
Ex2:大便颜色很淡,并且软如泥。
Stools were very light in color and of mushy consistence.

(5)他诉说间歇性腹泻与便秘交替发生。
He complained of intermittent diarrhea alternating with constipation.
※便秘
-便秘 suffer from constipation
-惯性便秘 habitual constipation
-时常便秘 be always constipated
-有便秘倾向 have a tendency to be constipated
-只有灌肠才能缓和严重的便秘 one's severe constipation was relieved only by
enemas
Ex1:便秘很难治,他以前常乞灵于泻药。
The constipation was very obstinate (stubborn) and he resorted to the frequent use of cathartics.
Ex2:她的便秘逐渐严重起来,同时发觉到粪便直径变细。
She became progressively more constipated and noted a narrowing in the caliber of
the stools.

※腹泻
-晨泻,水泻,粘液性腹泻,慢性腹泻 diarrhea (morning, watery, mucous, dysenteric, chronic)
-腹泻 diarrhea (轻症 mild,拖延的 protracted, 无法控制的 uncontrolled, 难医的
intractable)
-患腹泻 suffer from diarrhea; have ( an attack of ) diarrhea; have loose bowels
-短期的腹泻发生了 a brief episode of diarrhea occurred
-开始泻腹(自然消失,于两天后消失) diarrhea commenced ( spontaneously
disappeared, cleared after 2 days)
-偶而泻肚子 have occasional diarrhea
-腹泻厉害,在3~7次之间 diarrhea varied in severity from 3 to 7 B.M.
-不得不服药 be obliged to take physics
-腹泻未因吃脱脂牛奶而转佳 received skim milk without any improvement in the
diarrhea
-用泻药 use a purgative
Ex1:他患腹泻,每天有8~10次带有粘液,脓和鲜红色血的大便。
He developed diarrhea with the daily passage of 8~10 stools containing mucous, pus, and bright red blood.
Ex2:以前他患过同样的腹泻,但从来没有这么严重过。
He previously had similar attacks of diarrhea but they were never so severe.
 

exercise 5

1.几个星期来,他感觉稍微工作即疲倦。
2.他容易疲倦,不能工作。
3.他头痛,微感不适。
4.昨天晚上他发高烧。
5.昨天他的体温伴随寒战,升到摄氏40度2分。
6.今天早上,他的体温降到摄氏36.8度。
7.住院前的体温,总是在36.8到40度之间。
8.4天来,他发热总在摄氏38度4分左右。
9.他的热度,老是不退。
10.他头痛发热。

1.
a)He feels tired (fatigued) after slight exertion for many weeks.
b)Even a trifling work would make him weary during these last weeks.
c)He becomes tired on slight exertion for these weeks.

2.
a)He is easily fatigued. Consequently, he is unable to work.
b)He is extremely fatiguable at all times and therefore can do nothing.
c)He is troubled by easy fatiguability, and as a result of this he cannot perform any work.

3.
a)He feels heavy in his head and slight discomfort.
b)He has a headache and is rather indisposed (out of sorts).
c)He is troubled by a headache associated with slight indisposition.

4.
a)He had a high-grade fever last night.
b)He had an attack of high fever last night.
c)He was sick( ill) with high fever last night.

5.
a)The fever, together with shaking chills, rose (went) up to 40.2°C yesterday.
b)There was an elevation of fever to 40.2°C with shaking chills yesterday.
c)Yesterday, the fever increased ( was elevated) to 40.2°C with shaking chills.
d)Yesterday his body temperature accompanied with a chill reached 40.2°C.

6.
a)This morning his fever fell ( dropped; decreased; subsided; abated) to 36.8°C.
b)There was decrease in his fever to 36.8°C this morning.

7.
a)The temperature P.T.A. had been in the range of 38.6° to 40°C.
b)The temperature P.T.A had ranged ( varied; fluctuated; run) from 38.6° to 40°C.
c)P.T.A., he had had a range in temperature from 38.6° to 40°C.

8.
a)He has continued to have a temp. of 38.4°C for 4 days.
b)He has had a steady temp. of 38.4°C for 4 days.
c)He has been ill with a temp. of 38.4°C for 4 days.

9.
a)His fever has never fallen.
b)His fever has remained unchanged.
c)His fever has been steady ( constant).
d)He has continued to have a spiking (persistent) fever.

10.
a)He suffered from headache and fever.
b)He had headache associated (together) with fever.
c)He was troubled by headache and fever.
 

十五、排尿 Urination,生殖器 Genitalia

(1)他诉说,在两侧鼠蹊部和睾丸有拉痛,且有夜尿,小便时有灼热感,间或放红色的尿。
He complained of a drawing pain in both groins and testicles, nocturia, burning on
urination and the intermittent voiding of red-colored urine.
※尿
-种类 colorless, clear, transparent, translucent( semitransparent), opaque, milky(
opalescent) cloudy( turbid), orange, greenish, dirty blue, green, yellow( amber;
straw), red, bright red, brown yellow, dark-brown, brown-dark, light brown, pale
yellow, faint pale, clay-colored, patty-colored
-排便 micturate; make( pass) water; void; piss
-一夜有2次小便 have nocturia twice nightly ( a night)
-这次住院时解出一个结石 pass a stone on this admission
-小便浑浊 one's urine is thick( colored)
-解出极浑浊,乳白色的尿 the passage of highly turbid, milky urine
-频尿 frequent urination( micturition)
-无法忍受的频尿 intolerable frequency of urination
-终末性血尿 terminal hematuria
-终末尿带有几滴血 urine terminates with a few drops of blood
-排尿痛 micturition pain
-解尿时左腰疼痛 have pain in the left loin on micturition
-小便流势良好 void with a good stream
-尿流细小 small urinary stream
-常解少量的尿 pass small amounts of urine frequently
-小便发生困难 dysuria( inability to void) developed
-小便时非常的痛 piss pins and needles
-变成失禁 become incontinent
-患便尿失禁 develop urinary and fecal incontinence
-把尿失禁完全治好 obtain complete cure of incontinence
-不能把尿尽行解出 be unable to void without residual urine
Ex1:小便时有强烈的烧灼感,当他工作时受到很大的困扰。
His voiding was accompanied by severe burning, and he was greatly inconvenienced
at work.
Ex2:他尿意频频,但每次仅出2、3滴。
He has a frequent desire to urinate, but only a few drops cone out each time.

(2)性欲减退,但仍能射精。
There was a decrease in libido but ejaculation was still present.
 
※性欲
-发觉性欲减退 note decreased libido
-发觉性欲渐减 note gradual loss of libido
-性欲有些减退 have some decrease in libido
-没有性欲 have no libido
-性冷感 be frigid( unaffectionate) sexually
-性欲正常 libido is normal
-性要求过高(太低) be oversexed( undersexed)
-对于性交无热诚 be unenthusiastic about intercourse
-性感不快已有几个月了 had dyspareunia for a few months
-不起劲的性关系 devitalized sexual relationship
-25至35岁夫妻的正常次数 normal frequency of intercourse for married couples of 25 to 35
-未曾达到高潮 never achieve( reach) climax
-在结婚头一年时常不容易达到极致 frequently have difficulty in reaching orgasm
in one's marital coitus in the first year of marriage
-未曾尝过情欲高潮的极致 have not experienced orgasm
-仅有过一次情欲高潮的极致 have only had an orgasm once
-享受每一动作 greatly enjoy every act of sexual intercourse
-节欲 be continent
Ex1:仍能射精,但阴茎勃起力却减退了。
Ejaculation was possible but penile erectile strength decreased.
Ex2:后来月经停止了,而她对于「性」冷淡了起来。
Later, menstruation ceased and she became sexually aopathetic.
 
※生殖器
-阴蒂边发痒、有刺激感 itching and irritation around the clitoris
-婚前的纵欲 premarital sexual indulgence
-婚前有过性关系 engaged in premarital sexual relationship
-接交过性病病人 venereally exposed; venereal exposure
-染淋疾,患梅毒 contract gono., get syphilis
-否认与性病有染 deny V.D. contact
-不能人道 inability to perform sexual intercourse
-交媾疼痛 painful coitus( coition)
-突然变成阳萎 suddenly became impotent
Ex1:一星期以前,他发觉在右鼠蹊部,发生无压痛的肿胀,时起时消。
He noticed a nontender swelling appearing on and off in his right groin one week ago.
Ex2:这病人诉说阴茎和足底发痒,并且齿龈有不舒服感。
The patient complained of pruritus of the penis and itching in the soles of the feet,
and an annoying sensation in the gingiva.

(3)月经于13岁开始,一直到发生月经过多症以前,经期正常。
Menarche occurred at 13 years of age and the menstrual cycle remained within
normal limits until the onset of menorrhagia.
※月经
-月经开始(少量、中等、厚、多) (mild, moderate, frank, heavy) menses begin (start; commence; take place)
-经期正常28~30日一次 have normal period at 28-to 30-day intervals
-月经规则,周期为28天,继续4天 have regular period every 28 days that lasted 4 days
-月经周期为28天 have menstrual cycles of 28 days
-月经开始不规则,并且长期无月经 began to have menstrual irregularities with
long period of amenorrhea
-月经未曾失常 have no previous menstrual aberrations
-周期变成不定 interval became variable
-比平常多 heavier than usual
-发觉到月经持续不断并且过多 noted persistent excessive menstrual flow
-月经不来 menses did not occur
-停经已4年 be 4 years postmenopausal
-在46岁时停经 passed( underwent; went through) the menopause at age 46
-多量(块状,厚多)阴道出血加多,有几个月之久 increasingly profuse (massive,
frank) vaginal bleeding of several months duration.
-月经过多,并且流出血块 experience( develop) menorrhagia with passage of clots
-有些轻微、无痛性阴道出血 some slight painless vaginal bleeding
-发觉经期外和性交后出血 noted intermenstrual and postcoital bleeding
-分泌少量厚汁物质 drained a small amount of purulent material
-间歇性的剧烈下腹痛 intermittent, sharp, lower abdominal pains
Ex1:她于13岁开始有正常的月经,周期为28~32天,有轻度的月经痛。
She began to menstruate regularly at 13 at intervals of 28~32 days with slight
dysmenorrheal.
Ex2:月经痛性而不规则,大约一个月发生2次。
The menstrual periods were painful and irregular, occurring approximately twice
monthly.

exercise 6

1.他胃口良好,什么都吃。
2.他的食量正常,一餐吃两碗饭。
3.他的食欲不如以前好。
4.他胃口不好,不想吃东西。
5.他的食欲渐减。
6.他2天来没吃东西。
7.近来他感觉非常口渴,夜里必须起来喝几次水。
8.他因身体过重,开始减食。

1.
a)He has a good appetite and eats all kinds of food.
b)His appetite is perfect and he likes all varieties of food.
c)He has a strong stomach and accordingly eats anything.

2.
a)He has a normal consumption( capacity) for eating and takes 2 bowls of rice each meal.
b)The food intake is normal and he takes 2 bowls of rice at one meal.

3.
a)His appetite is not as good as it used to be.
b)His appetite proves no better than before.
c)His appetite appears to be poorer than before.

4.
a)He dose not care a bit for food due to loss of appetite.
b)He has a poor appetite and he is not interested in food.
c)He suffers from anorexia and has no desire for food.
d)He has no stomach for food, so he does not feel like eating.

5.
a)His appetite decreased( diminished; was reduced) gradually.
b)A gradual failure of his appetite was noted.
c)His desire for food declined gradually.

6.
a)He has not had( touched) a bite of food for 2 days.
b)He has eaten nothing for the last(past) 2 days.
c)For 2 days nothing has entered his mouth.

7.
a)Recently he has felt very( extremely) thirsty and he has had to get up in the night several times to refresh himself with water.
b)Lately he has parched with extreme( excessive) thirst and even at night he has had to get up several times for water in order to alleviate his thirst.
c)Of late he has had colossal thirst, and he has been getting several times at night to quench his thirst by drinking water.

8.
a)Due to obesity he began to fast( follow a strict diet).
b)On account of overweight, he made it a rule not to eat too much( overeat).
c)He used great moderation in his diet on account of excessive weight.

 
十六、其它 Miscellaneous

(1)拔牙后,他流了10天的血。
He bled for 10 days following the extraction of a tooth.
※出血
-流鼻血 one's nose bleeds; expistaxis; nosebleed
-流很多血 bleed freely ( profusely; badly; heavily; massively; generously) ; blood flows profusely
-子宫(阴道、牙龈)出血 uterine( vaginal, gingival) bleeding
-大量的搏动性出血 copious pulsating bleeding
-一星期来舌头出血 have bleeding from one's tongue for the past week
-过去无出血倾向的病历 no history of bleeding tendency in the past
-继续出血 bleed continuously
-停止出血了 the bleeding ceased( stopped)
-止血 staunch the flow of blood; stop ( arrest; suppress) the bleeding
Ex1:他不断地流血,同时全身状态也恶化了。
He continued to bleed, and his general condition deteriorated.
Ex2:齿龈很容易出血,以致不能再用牙刷刷牙了。
The gum bled so easily that brushing her teeth with a toothbrush was no longer possible.

(2)左下眼睑浮肿,他不能张开病侧眼睛。
The left lower( inferior) eyelid is edematous and he is unable to open his eye on this side.
※眼
-左上眼睑显着下垂 the left upper eyelid dropped perceptibly
-眉毛向内生,倒睫 have got an introverted( ingrown) eyelash
-在上眼睑生了麦粒肿 have got a sty on the upper eyelid
-眼痛 pain in the eyes
-在左眼内有异物 have foreign body in the left eye
-过度流泪 excessive tearing (watering); profuse lacrimation
-眼脂增加 (粘脓性的,线状的,白色泡沫状的) increased discharge( mucopurulent, stringy, whitish foamy)
-眼睛疲劳 fatigued vision
-远(近)处看不清楚 indistinct( obscured) distant( near) vision
-视力减退 diminution of vision
-视力一性发生馍糊 transient blurring of vision occurred
-患了短期的视力馍糊 experienced a short period of blurred vision.
-左眼失明(渐进的,突发的,一时性的) loss of vision in the left eye (gradual, sudden, momentary)
-视界减小 decreased visual field in the slight
Ex1:四星期前,他的视力间或馍糊,最近2个星期来,视力比以前变得更坏。
Four weeks previously he had intermittent hazy vision, but in the last 2 weeks the vision has become progressively worse.
Ex2:他发觉左眼视力有毛病。
He noted that his vision was defective on the left side.

(3)他有轻度耳鸣,并且听力稍减。
He had mild tinnitus, and slightly decreased auditory acuity.
※耳
-患耳鸣 have a ringing ( singing; buzzing) in one's ears; one's ears ring; ringing in the ears
-偶发轻微的搏动性耳鸣 occasional mild pulsating tinnitus
-躺下时在右耳有嗡嗡声的感觉 a buzzing sensation in the right ear when lying down
-听力不佳 impaired( decreased) hearing
-听力开始衰退 one's hearing began to regress
-听觉困难 difficulty in hearing
-听力消失loss in hearing
-长期耳聋 long-standing deafness
-一个耳朵是聋的 be deaf of (in) one ear
-患有2年轻微流脓 have slight otorrhea of 2 years' duration
-耳漏停止了 aural discharge ceased
-耳痛 otalgia; ear-ache
-中耳炎 otitis media; tympanitis
-耳朵很痛 have a great deal of pain in the ear
-耳塞感 feeling of fullness in the ear
Ex1:这病人很聋;要在她床边大声叫才能听到,而且唇读法也困难。
The patient was very deaf; she could only hear a loud shout at the bedside and utilize lipreading with difficulty.
Ex2:听力一直减退,而且耳鸣变成一种经常不断的,各种音调的感觉。
The hearing loss progressed and the tinnitus became a persistent sensation of varying pitch.

(4)1956年,在她14岁时,在右颌下部发现胡桃大的肿块。
In 1956 at the age of 14, she first noticed a lump of the size of a walnut in the right submaxillary region.
※肿块等
-在上星期肿块大了起来 mass was growing larger during last week
-肿块大小未变 the sizes remained stationary
-在颈部右侧发觉一个小肿块 noted a small growing on the right side of one's neck
-断续的发生紫绀 have intermittent attacks of cyanosis
-没有遭受裂伤、擦伤 sustained no lacerations, abrasions
-两手裂着缝 one's hands are chapped
-不能用鼻孔呼吸 be unable to breathe through the nose
-鼻塞与鼻涕停止了 nasal obstruction and discharge ceased
-流涎厉害 have intense salvation
-颈部运动发生困难 develop difficulty in moving one's neck
-不能开口 inability to open the mouth
-把口张开到最大限度并无困难 have no difficulty in opening one's mouth to its full extent
Ex1:口内大干,以致病人咀嚼和吞下食物,都有困难。
The mouth is so dry that it is difficulty for the patient to masticate and swallow food.
Ex2:他患了极广泛而严重的湿疹,遍及大部份躯干、面部和头皮,并且有显着的瘙痒症。
He suffered from a very extensive and severe eczema involving most of the body, face, and scalp, associate with marked pruritus.
 

exercise 7

1.他容易睡,也容易醒过来。
2.他很想睡,但不能睡熟。
3.不能入睡时,他总是吃镇静药。
4.他非服安眠药,不能成眠。
5.两天来,他一直睡不着。
6.神经衰弱使他通宵未眠。
7.他老是抑郁。
8.他容易发脾气。
9.他因失恋,而神经错乱。
10.他记性不好。
11.气候转变时,他的关节会痛。
12.半年来,他的左腿无知觉。

1.
a)He goes to sleep easily and has no difficulty in waking up.
b)He falls into sleep easily and is also easily awakened.
c)He falls asleep easily as much as he is awakened easily.

2.
a)Tough his eyes are heavy, he cannot sleep well(soundly).
b)He feels sleepy but cannot get into a perfect sleep.
c)He is extremely drowsy but cannot go to deep(sound) sleep.

3.
a)When he has much trouble to get to sleep, he takes sedatives.
b)When he is unable to sleep he takes sedatives.
c)He takes sedatives when he cannot fall asleep.

4.
a)He cannot sleep without the aid of sleeping pill.
b)He has to take sleeping pill before going to bed.
c)He has to take sleeping pill in order to get a good sleep.

5.
a)He has suffered from insomnia(sleeplessness) for consecutive 2 nights.
b)He has been unable to sleep for 2 nights.
c)He has never felt like going to sleep for two nights.

6.
a)He could not sleep at all on account of nervous breakdown.
b)He could not get a wink of sleep due to nervous breakdown.
c)Suffering from nervous breakdown, he scarcely slept at all.

7.
a)He is always depressed( in low spirits).
b)He always has the blues.
c)He appears to be low-spirited always.

8.
a)He is apt to lose his temper( become angry).
b)He gets angry easily.
c)He is easily offended( irritated; excited).

9.
a)He suffered from nervous breakdown because of his unsuccessful love.
b)He was beside himself with agonies of broken heart.
c)A failure in love caused him to be mentally deranged.

10.
a)He has a poor( bad; short) memory.
b)His memory is poor.
c)He is forgetful.

11.
a)He will suffer from joint pain( arthralgia) when there is a change of weather.
b)He feels a pain in the joint whenever the weather changes.
c)His joint pain will appear at the change of weather.

12.
a)He feels numb in his left leg for a half-year.
b)His left leg has been paralyzed for a half-year.
c)For half a year there has been a lack of sensation in his left leg.

 
病历例句-身体检查:

第一节 主要检查项目(一般)

(1)全身状态 General Appearance:
1.体位 Stature (姿势 posture, 步态 gait)
2.身体发育 Physical development (体格physique, 肌肉musculature, 骨骼skeleton),
营养状态 nutritional state
3.疾病的严重性和急性度 Severity and acuteness of illness.
4.精神状态 Mental state: 知觉的程度degree of consciousness (定向力orientation,
记性memory, 注意力attention, 智能intelligence),
情绪对疾病的反应状态emotional state in reaction to illness.
(2)生理测定值 Physical Data: 体重weight, 身高height, 体温temperature(口腔
温度oral, 腋窝温度axillary, 直肠温度rectal, 阴道温度vaginal), 脉搏pulse (心尖
搏动apical, 挠骨搏动radial), 呼吸respiration, 血压blood pressure(坐位血压
sitting, 卧位血压lying), etc.
(3)皮肤 Skin:
1.颜色 Color(苍白pallor, 潮红flush, 紫绀cyanosis, 黄疸jaundice, 色素沉着
pigmentation:着色的pigmented, 褪色的depigmented, 变色的discolored).
2.结构 Texture(有弹性的elastic, 湿润的moist, 平滑的smooth, 粗糙的harsh
(rough),强韧的tough, 有皱的wrinkling, 萎缩的atrophic, 鳞状的scaly, 光亮的
shiny, 光滑的glossy, 干燥的dry, 湿冷的clammy).
3.浮肿 Edema, 弹力turgor, 脱水dehydration.
4.发疹 Eruptions, 荨麻疹hives(urticaria), 香港脚athlete's foot, 痒疹prurigo, 药物疹
drug eruption, 水泡性湿疹vesicular eczema, 其它病变other lesions(丘疹papules,
疱vesicles, 脓疱pustules, 疱疹blebs, 溃疡ulcers, 小结节 nodules, 疣warts, 胎痔
birth marks, 瘀点petechiae).
5.毛发 Hair(腋毛axillary, 胎毛lanugo,颊髭whiskers, 胡子moustache, 胡须beard),
结构texture(粗的coarse, 细的fine, 脆性的brittle, 干燥的dry, 无光泽的lusterles
s),稀少的sparse(scant), 毛发过多excessive hairness(hypertrichosis),分布
distribution.
(4)淋巴结 Lymph Nodes: 大小size, 部位location, 敏感度 sensibility, 可动性
mobility, 硬度consistency.
(5)头部 Head: 头颅和头皮skull and scalp(外形configuration, 瘢痕scars, 头发
hair), 压痛tenderness.
(6)面部 Faces: 表情expression, 对性性symmetry, 压痛tenderness, 气色color.
(7)眼 Eyes:
1.眼睑 Eyelids: 浮肿edema, 眼脂discharge, 怕光photophobia, 眼睑下垂ptosis,
前垂proptosis, 兔眼lagophthalmos, 眼睑痉挛blepharospasm, 流泪lacrimation
(lacry-), 眼睑裂口的宽度width of palpebral fissures.
2.巩膜 Sclera: 黄疸jaundice, 出血hemorrhage
3.结膜 Conjunctivae: 苍白pallor, 小血管露张injection, 瘀点petechiae, 充血
congestion, 颗粒(沙眼)granulations(trachoma).
4.角膜 Cornea: 外形(轮廓)outline, 透明度transparency, 弧度curvature, 敏感度
sensibility, 瘢痕scars, 溃疡ulceration, 老眼环arcus senilis.
5.瞳孔 Pupils: 大小size, 形状shape, 规则性regularity, 等大性equality,
对光调节及聚合反射reactions to L. & A. and convergence, 距离调节
accommodation(to distance).
6.眼球 Eyeball: 眼球震颤nystagmus, 麻痹palsy, 斜视strabismus, 眼球陷没
enophthalmos, 眼球突出exophthalmos.
7.视力 Vision: 对比时之视野visual fields by confrontation, 复视diplopia, 视障碍
visual(gross) disturbance, 飞蚊视幻myodesopais.
8.检眼镜的 Ophthalmoscopic: 水晶体lens, 视神经盘optic disc, 反射reflex, 出血
hemorrhage, 渗出物exudate.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
以上:
全身状态、生理测定值、皮肤、淋巴结、头部、面部、眼


病历例句-身体检查:

第一节 主要检查项目(一般)-Ⅱ

(8)耳 Ears:
1.外耳 external, 中耳 middle
2.内耳 internal: 耳镜检查 otoscopic examination, 外耳道和鼓膜的状态 appearance of canals ans drums, 穿孔 perforation, 耳漏 otorrhea, 耳垢 cerumen( ear wax).
3.听力 auditory acuity (表 watch, 声音voice, 音叉 tuning forks, 听音计 audiometer.)

(9)鼻 Nose: 形状shape, 鼻中膈 spetum (偏曲deviation, 穿孔perforation), 鼻甲
turbinates, 充血 congestion, 鼻漏 rhinorrhea, 鼻炎 rhinitis, 鼻塞obstruction.

(10)口 Mouth:
1.口唇 Lips: 对称 symmetry, 颜色color, 湿润度moisture, 紫绀 cyanosis, 疱疹 herpes.
2.粘膜 Mucosa: 颜色 color, 色素沉着 pigmentation, 溃疡 ulceration.
3.齿龈 Gums: 齿龈脓漏pyorrhea, 出血 bleeding, 齿龈炎gingivitis, 齿龈肿胀swelling of gums.
4.舌 Tongue: 颜色 color, 乳头萎缩 papillary atrophy, 溃疡ulceration, 扁斜deviation, 运动 movement, 舌苔coating.
5.牙齿 Teeth:无齿的 edentulous, 牙齿数目 number present, 口腔卫生欠佳或良好 hygiene poor or good, 牙根 roots, 齿髓炎pulpitis, 假牙false teeth, 龋齿 caries, 失去的牙齿missing teeth, 修补牙齿 dental repair( 牙冠crowns, 装桥术bridgework, 镶嵌inlay, 充填filling)
6.口臭 Halitosis(fetor oris; foul or bad breath)

(11)咽喉Throat:
1.咽头 Pharynx (口盖反射 palatal reflex, 后鼻漏postnasal drip), 张口反射 gag reflex, 下咽swallowing, 扁桃腺 tonsils (大小 size, 扁桃体小窝 crypts, 渗出液 exudate).
2.喉头 Larynx( 声音的特征 character of voice, 喉头镜检查laryngoscopic examination.)

(12)颈部Neck:
1.血管 Blood vessels: 静脉充血venous engorgement, 异常搏动abnormal pulsations, 瘢痕scars
2.甲状腺 Thyroid: 肥大 enlarged, 杂音bruit, 震颤 thrills.
3.气管 Trachea:位置 position, 在正中在线或偏移 midline or deviated, 气管切开 tracheotomy.
4.强直 Rigidity: 斜颈 torticollis (wryncek).
5.颈部淋巴结 Cervical lymph nodes: 肿胀 swelling, 肿瘤tumor.

(13)胸部与肺部 Chest and Lungs:
1.视诊Inspection: 外形 contour( 扁平的flat, 突出的bulging, 陷没的depressed ( retracted). 佝偻病性的 ricketty), 对称symmetry, 不对称 a-(un-) symmetry, 膨胀度degree of expansion(速度rate, 深度depth, 呼吸的型式 type of respiration:胸式呼吸thoracic, 腹式呼吸abdominal ,胸腹式呼吸thoraco-abdominal), 乳房breasts( 乳汁分泌lactation, 乳头nipples, 乳晕 areolae, 肿块 masses, 瘢痕 scars.)
2.触诊 Palpation: 触觉性震颤tactile fremitus.
3.叩诊 Percussion: 康尼氏峡 Kroning's isthmus(比较对称的部位 compare symmetrical areas), 反响resonance.
4.听诊 Auscultation: 呼吸声的特征和强度character and intensity of breath sounds (消失absent, 减少 diminished(depressed), 增大 exaggerated, 呼气和吸气的相对期间relative duration of inspiration and expiration, 啰音(水泡音)ralses(干性啰音dry:笛声sibilant, 鼾音sonorous(musical);湿性啰音moist(bubbling), 磨擦音friction rub).
5.隔膜 Diaphragm: 检查高度和移动性 determine level and excursion.

(14)心脏 Heart:
1.视诊 Inspection: 最大搏动点PMI,异常跳动或凹陷abnormal pulsation or retraction.
2.触诊 Palpation: 最大搏动点所在location of PMI, 震颤thrills, 脉搏数pulse rate, 律调rhythm, 容量 volume, 相同equality, 血管壁 vessel wall, 浊音 dullness (绝对浊音absolute, 相对浊音 relative).
3.叩诊 Percussion: 心脏左右境界right and left borders of heart.
4.听诊 Auscultation: 心音heart sounds (强度 intensity: loud, accentuated, exaggerated, soft, faint, diminished=decreased, absent, disappeared; 第一僧帽瓣膜音 M1,第2 大动脉音A2, 第2肺动脉音P2, 心音律的特性 character of cardiac rhythm, 心杂音 murmur (时间time:收缩期杂音systolic, 收缩前(中期,后)杂音pre-(mid-, post-)systolic;舒张期杂音diastolic,舒张前(中期,后)杂音 pre-(mid-,post-)diastolic; 所在location, 音调pitch, 性状character:吹风声blowing, 大声loud, 柔和声soft,粗造声harsh(rough),杵状声clubbing, 搔抓声scratching, 倒水声pouring, 沙沙声rustling, 汽笛声whistling,重迭声lapping).
 

病历例句-身体检查:

第一节 主要检查项目(一般)-Ⅲ

(15)腹部 Abdomen:
1.视诊(Naked) Inspection: 外形 contour, 瘢痕 scars, 静脉扩张 dilated veins, 明显可见的蠕动 visible peristalsis, 腹壁条纹的特性 striae character of wall, 异常色素沉着 abnormal pigmentation.
2.触诊 Palpation: 膨胀 distention, 气过水声 gurgling, 腹鸣 borborygmus, 紧张度 tonicity, (不)随意抵抗或强直 (in)-voluntary resistance or rigidity, 压痛 tenderness(回缩压痛 rebound tenderness, 椎肋软骨部压痛 tenderness in costovertebral areas, 马克孛内氏点上的压痛 tenderness over McBurney's point), 肿块 masses(大小 size, 形状 shape, 硬度 consistency, 固定或可移动的 fixed or movable), 部位 location (腹上部 epigastric, 腹下部 hypogastric, 季肋部 hypochondriac, 或肠骨部 or iliac region) ,肝脏、肾脏或其它可触知器官的形状和硬度 shape and consistency of liver, kidneys, or other palpable organs (有弹性的 elastic, 硬的 hard, 钝圆的 dull, 尖锐的 sharp).
3.叩诊 Percussion: 移动浊音 shifting dullness, 鼓肠 meteorism(tympany), (腹水)波动 fluid wave, 肝、脾或其它浊音 liver, splenic , or other dullness.

(16)生殖器 Genitalia:
1.男性 Male: 阴毛 pubic hair, 外阴部的发育 development of external genitalia, 尿道分泌物 urethral discharge, 包茎 phimosis, 阴囊 scrotum, 包皮 prepuce, 睪丸 testes, 阴茎病变或其瘢痕 penile lesions or scars, 阴囊水肿 hydrocele, 睪丸萎缩或其肿堆 testicular atrophy or masses, 精索 spermatic cords, 第2性征是否存在 note absence or presence of secondary sex characteristics.

2.女性 Female: 骨盘检查 pelvic examination: 外阴部的视诊 inspection of external genitalia, 阴道 vagina (处女膜是否完整 hymen intact or not, 阴道口 introitus, 分泌物 discharge , 直肠脱出 rectocele, 膀胱膨出 cystocele), 会阴部的视诊 inspection of perineum , 子宫颈 cervix (颜色 color, 位置 position, 裂伤 lacerations, 糜烂 erosions, 外翻 eversion), 子宫及附属器的双手检查 bimanual examination of uterus and adnexa.

(17)背部 Back: 弯曲 curvatures, 对称性 symmetry, 可动性 mobility, 脊柱、骨盘和肾脏的压痛 tenderness over spine, pelvis , and kidneys.

(18)四肢 Extremities: 消瘦 wasting, 肌肉紧张力 muscle tone, 肿块 masses, 创伤 wounds.
1.上肢 Upper: 手 hands, 手掌的颜色和湿润度 color and moisture of palms, 杵状指 clubbed fingers, 指甲发绀 cyanosis of nails, 关节肿胀或畸形 joint swelling or deformity, 肩 shoulder, 肘 elbow, 上臂 upper arm, 前臂 forearm.
2.下肢 Lower: 关节的可动性和畸形 mobility or deformity of joints, 脚的颜色和热度 color and temperature of feet, 浮肿 edema, 静脉曲张 varicose veins, 足脚的长度 leg length, 大腿 thigh, 腿围 thigh circumference (上部1/3 upper 1/3, 中部1/3 mid 1/3, 下部1/3 lower 1/3) , 膝 knee, 小腿 calf, 足 foot( 脚踝 ankle, 足背instep, 脚底 sole, 脚跟 heel).

(19)神经精神系统检查 Neuropsychiatric Examination:
1.脑神经 Cranial nerves.
2.运动机能 Motor functions: 衰弱 weakness, 麻痹 palsy (偏瘫 hemi-, 截瘫 para-, 单瘫 mono-plegia), 痉挛状态 spasticity, 弛缓状态 flaccidity, 共济失调 incoordination, 步态和体位 gait, and station.
3. 深腱反射 Deep tendon reflex: 二头肌反射biceps, 三头肌反射 triceps, 膝盖反射 patellar, 跟腱反射 Achilles, 巴彬斯奇氏病征 Babinski, 克匿格氏反应 Kerning, 观察反应程度 note degree of activity (轻度~重度 + to ++++),比较左右两侧的反应 compare right and left .
4.知觉机能 Sensory functions: 震颤vibration, 痛觉 pain, 温觉 heat, 冷觉与位置感觉 cold and position, 五官 the five senses( 听觉 sense of hearing, 视觉 sight, 味觉 taste,触觉 touch, 嗅觉 smell).

 
病历例句-身体检查:

第二节 表示身体部位的介词-Ⅰ at, in

1.“at'' 通常用于较狭的场所,即局限部位或点。
-在心尖处 at the apex of the heart
-在左下胸处 at the left lower chest area
-在下颌右角处 at the right angle of the mandible
-在色素沉着处的一个肿瘤块 a tumor mass at the site of pigmentation
ex1:脾尖可以在左肋缘处触知。
The spleen tip was palpable at the left costal margin.
ex2:在前右(肺)底处,也可以听到一些微弱啰音。
A few fine rales were also heard at the right base posteriorly.

2.“in“用于较大场所(部位),如表示「在~里面」时,可用于小地方。
-在右中腹,有一个肿块 have a mass in the right mid-abdomen
-左手无力且有麻感 weakness and numbness in the left hand
-胃痛 pain in the stomach
-各关节处酸痛 have aching in various joints
ex1:在上阴部皮肤上起了一个柔软、波动的胞囊状肿瘤物。
There is one soft, fluctuant cystic mass arising from the skin in the suprapubic area.
ex2:在上颌有一个无痛性的肿胀。
There is a painless swelling in the roof of the mouth.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
表示部位的介词共有-(待续)
Ⅰat, in
Ⅱon, over, above
Ⅲbeneath, under, below
Ⅳalong, around

病历例句-身体检查:

第二节 表示身体部位的介词-Ⅱ on, over, above
1.”on”用于表示与表面接触的部位:
-舌尖上的一个坏死性溃疡 a necrotic ulcer on the tip of the tongue
-在左侧头部上的模糊痛 vague headache on the left side
-在右下齿龈上 on the right lower gingiva
-在左股上的一个带有疼痛的溃疡 a painful ulcer on the left thigh
Ex1:由口腔检查知,在上下唇和舌表面下有瘀血。
Examination of the oral cavity revealed petechiae on both upper and lowe lips and on the undersurface of the tongue.
Ex2:在皮肤表面,可以看到外皮痂形成的病变。
Crusted lesions were seen on all skin surface.

2.“over“用于表示在其上的部位:
-上背部皮肤的痒感 itching on the skin over the upper back
-右腕上的一个结节 a nodule over the right wrist
Ex1:在右股上前部有一度烧痕。
There was a first-degree burn over the upper anterior portion of the right thihg.
Ex2:由肺部检查知,呼吸声在左上胸前、后部变弱。
Examination of the lung fields revealed the breath sounds to be diminished over the left upper chest anteriorly and posteriorly.

3.’’above’’表示部位在高低,在上面(higher than)
Ex1:住院时,在左肋缘上方有中等度黄疸和一个小疤痕。
On admission there was a moderate degree of jaundice and a small scar above the left costal margin.
Ex2:在乳头上部,可以触知豌豆大的结节。
A pea-sized nodule is felt above the nipple.

第二节 表示身体部位的介词-Ⅲ beneath, under, below
与上述介词(on, over, above)相反:
1.”beneath” 表示底下的接触:
Ex1:右侧颊部粘膜下,有带痛的肿胀。
There is a tender swelling beneath the right buccal mucosa.
Ex2:她在1959年1月,第一次在两侧乳房下皮肤,发觉有过度的色素沉着。
She first noticed hyperpigmentation of the skin beneath both breasts in Jan. 1959.

2.”under”表示在其下的部位:
Ex1:他因口底下左下颌处疼痛和肿胀有72小时而受检。
He was examined with a 72-hour complaint of pain and swelling under the left jaw in the floor of the mouth.
Ex2:在皮肤下可触知肿瘤。
Tumors are palpated under the skin.

3.”below” (=lower than)
Ex1:子宫可以在脐下2指宽处触知。
The uterus was palpable 2 finger-breadths below the umbilicus.
Ex2:病人在右下颌的大臼齿,有一放射透过性的病变。
The patient has a radiolucent lesion below the molar teeth in the right mandible.
 

第二节 表示身体部位的介词-Ⅳ along, around
1. “ along”表示沿一长线的部位:
Ex1:收缩期杂音(第5度),沿着左胸骨缘散播出去。
A systolic (grade V) murmur radiated along the left sternal border.
Ex2:沿着胸骨缘可听到杂音。
A murmur was heard along the sternal border.

2. “around”表示周围静止的部位:
Ex1:这病人自觉她左眼周围肌肉的痉挛,和左脸逐渐无力,已3年了。
For 3 years this patient was aware of a twitching of the muscles around her left eye and a progressive left facial weakness.
Ex2:疼痛集中在左眼周围,以及前额处。
The pain was centered around the left eye and forehead.
 

第四节 全身状态 General Appearance

1.在体检时,这个中等身材的病人,显出一副慢性病相,很瘦弱。
Upon P.E. the patient of medium build appeared chronically ill, very thin and frail.

客观症候
-呈有急性病状、无定向力、显著脱水的妇人 an acutely ill, disoriented, markedly dehydrated woman
-一个发育良好、肌骨体质的男孩,未显出急性或慢或病状 a well-developed, muscular mesomorphic boy who appears neither acutely or chronically ill
-营养不良、脸色病黄、病状很严重的男人 a poorly nourished, sallow-complexioned man who was seriously ill
-外表虚弱的妇人,显然情绪有点窘迫 frail-appearing woman with a moderately apparent emotional distress
-水分适当、恶病质而呈急性病因的男子 a well-hydrated cachectic male in acute distress
-消瘦、无力、体重显著减少的男人 an emaciated, asthenic male with evidence of marked weight loss
-肌瘦、苍白的婴孩,只鼻鸣,未放声哭泣 a wasted, pale infant, whining but making no definite cry
-肥胖男人,不活泼但脸色好 an obese, sluggish-appearing man with a florid complexion (countenance)
-体格不及格 be rejected for physical defects
Ex1:由身体看来,他是一个面色苍白、虚弱、营养非常不良的男婴。
Physically, he was a pale, delicate, fairly under-nourished baby.
Ex2:于1960年9月第一次住院时,这小女孩显得又黄又白,腹部凸出,而四肢消瘦,成一对比。
At the time of the first admission in Sept. 1960, she was a small sallow girl whose protuberant abdomen contrasted with her thin limbs.

发育状态
-营养佳 well-nourished
-营养中等 moderately nourished
-肥胖、肤色黄而多毛的妇人 an obese, yellowish skinned, hirsute woman
-个子高、瘦长衰弱的人 a tall, slender, asthenic person
-个子矮小、结实的男人 a small, compactly built male
-一个体重和身体属中等的男人 a middle-sized man of medium weight and height
-身材比正常人小些 be of somewhat smaller than normal stature
-具有男(女)性型体格 be of masculine(feminine) body build
-看起来比~所说的年龄大 appear older than one's stated age
Ex1:体检显示这女病人发育均匀正常。
On P.E. the patient appeared to be a normally proportioned female.
Ex2:由体检知,这病人的体型小,且属纤维性体质:显然苍白,但无紫绀色。
On examination the patient was small and of ectomorphic habitus: pallor was evident, but there was no cyanosis.
 

第四节 全身状态 General Appearance

2.在体检上,除了腹部膨胀外,病人全身尚合一般45岁男人的标准。
P.E. was generally consistent with that of any 45-year-old man except for his distended abdomen.

其它无异状
EX1:全身状态似乎良好(尚可、正常、不良)
Genearl condition (status) appears good (fair, normal, poor)
Ex2:这男病人面色苍白,营养、发育均佳,身体上无明显的异常现象。
The patient presented as a pale, well-nourished, well-developed male with no pertinent abnromal physical findings.

第五节 生理测定值
1.体检结果如下:体重51公斤,身高162公分,胸围95公分。
P.E. revealed the following: weight 51kg, height 162 cm, chest circumference at the nipple lin 95cm

体重、身高、胸围
-量体重 weigh oneself
-体重净重(不穿衣服)180磅 weight (scale) 180 pounds without one's clothes
-量身高 measure(take) one's height
-身高1公尺56公分 be (measure; stand) one meter fitty-six high (tall; in height)
-6英尺差3英寸 want 3 inches of 6 feet
-胸围36英寸 chest measurements are 36 inches

2.口腔体温是摄氏38.5度。
The temperature was 38.5°C when taken orally.

体温
-口腔温度有摄氏38度 take a temperature of 38°C per os ( by mouth; orally)
-37.6°C=thirty seven point (decimal) six degrees centigrade
Ex1:住院时的病人体温是38.2°C
The patient's temperature at the time of his admission to the hospital was 38.2°C.
Ex2:他量得体温36.4°C,脉搏一分钟80次
He measured (took; checked) a temperature of 36.4°C and counted a pulse of 80 beats.
 

第五节 生理测定值

3.脉搏跳动不规则,细小、稍快并且微弱。
The pulse is irregular, small, somewhat accelerated and weak.
脉搏
-频脉 tachycardia; rapid pulse
-徐脉 bradycardia; slow pulse
-节律(rhythm)规则(不规则) regular (irregular) pulse
-容量(volume)充实,稀有 full(good), feeble
-强度(tension)好,弱 good or weak
-脉搏迅速加快 pulse rates rise rapidly
-脉搏微弱、快、有如丝状 have a weak, rapid, thready pulse
-脉搏增加到(升至,降至)每分112次 p.r. increased (ascended, descended) to 112/min
Ex1:脉搏微弱如丝,不能再数。
The pulse is thread-like and cannot be counted any more.
Ex2:右挠骨动脉跳动与左边的搏动镇一致,但似乎有点迟缓。
The right radial pulse is not synchronous with the left, but it appears somewhat delayed.

4.呼吸快,浮浅,并且发出咕噜声,一分钟有40次。
The respirations are rapid, shallow and grunting, counting 40 a minute.
呼吸
-正常呼吸 normal breathing
-呼吸促迫 tachypenal; rapid breathing
-无呼吸 apnea
-过度呼吸 hyperpnea; hyperventilation
-鼾声(鼻翼)呼吸 stertorous(nasal alar) breathing
Ex1:他的呼吸一分钟有35次,是辜司模氏型呼吸。
His respirations were 35 per minute and of Kussmaul in type.
Ex2:呼吸显得表浅,并且时常中断。
The respiration appears superficial, and is interrupted now and then.

5.由体检知,侧卧位血压为120/82,站立时:90/65
P.E. disclosed a B.P. of 120/82 when declining and 90/65 when standing.
血压
-量血压 check (take; measure) one's B.P.
-血压190/75(收缩压190,舒张压75) B.P. 190/75 (190 over 75) (190 systolic and 75 diastolic)
-血压增超过200 B.P. was once>200 mmHg; B.P. was once over 200millimeters of mercury
-血压上升 B.P. rises (is elevated)
-发觉血压升得非常(稍微)高 found severely (slightly) elevated B.P.
-仍然有点高 be still a little high
-血压有点下降 have some drop in B.P.
-变为较低 become lower
-血压稳定不变(正常) B.P. remained stable(normal)
-血压稳定,在190/75 B.P. stabilized at 190/75
-血压不稳定,不能测知 B.P. is labile; unobtainable (unrecordable)
-难测知的血压有60/40 barely detectable B.P. of 60/40 mm of Hg.
-血压恢复正常(135/80) B.P. returns to normal (135/80)
Ex1:起初他没有脉搏,血压无法量出。
He was initially pulseless with no obtainable blood pressure.
Ex2:血压由140/80降到90/60厘米水银柱。
The blood pressure dropped(fell) from a prior level of 140/80mmHg to 90/60

姿势 position
-仰卧 dorsal ( back; supine)
-伏卧 prone
-胸膝(卧式) knee-chest
-膝肘(卧式) knee-elbow
-分娩(卧式) obstetric
-半伏卧 semiprone
-坐 sitting
-直立 upright (erect)
-侧卧 lateral
-背卧 dorsal recumbent
-左侧卧 left lateral recumbent
 

第六节 皮肤

1.脸部和胸部的皮肤似蜡、发亮、紧张、腋毛稍微增多。
The skin of the face and chest was waxy, shiny, and taut, and the axillary hair was slightly increased in amount.

皮肤颜色、结构
Ex1:皮肤热而干燥、无弹性,用手按捺时有柔软的感觉。
The skin was hot, dry and inelastic, and had a doughy feel.
Ex2:皮肤极萎缩,肌肉松弛,脂肪层几乎不存在。
The skin is extremely withered, the musculature is flabby and the adipose tissue is hardly present.

2. 皮疹遍及颈部、胸部、背部及上腋,但脸部没有。
The exanthema spreads over the neck, the breasts, the back and the upper extremities, but the face is free.
发疹
-雀斑 fleck
-痱子 prickly heat
-白癣 favus
-痒酥酥的 ticklish-itching
-搔痒 scratch an itchy place
Ex1:皮疹完全消失,此外无任何症状。
The eruption completely disappeared, and no trace of other symptoms was observed.
Ex2:丘疹持续数小时,然后消失,留下蓝色斑点。
The papules last several hours, then fade and are replaced by bluish pigmented spots.
 

exercise 8
1. 吃过饭后,马上痛起来。
2.他的胸痛持续了24小时。
3.疼痛的发生和用力无关。
4.她的痛局限于腹下部。
5.他的眼球痛,这疼痛放散到前额与太阳穴。
6.牙痛非常厉害,除了流动食外,他不能吃任何东西。
7.他的左胸部发生创痛,它每因咳嗽与深呼吸而加剧。
1.      
1)The pain is present immediately (soon; right) after meal.
2)The pain follows the meal immediately.
3)The pain occurs postprandially.
4)The pain appears as soon as the meal is over(finished).

2.
1)His chest pain continued for a day.
2)He had a one-day history of chest pain.
3)He experienced a pain in his chenst which lasted 24 hours.

3.
1)The pain is unrelated (not related ) to exertion.
2)The pain has no relation with exertion.
3)Thye pain occurs regardless of exertion.

4.
1)Her pain is limited to the lower abdominal region.
2)Her pain is located (situated) in the lower abdomen.
3)She has localized pain in the hypogastrium.

5.
1)He feels a pain in the eyeball., radiating to the forehead and temple.
2)He has a pain in his eyeball which radiates to the forehead and temple.

6.
1)The toothache is so severe that he cannot eat anything but liquid food.
2)The toothache is so severe that only liquid food can be tolerated.
3)Apart from liquid food, he can take nothing because of the severe toothache.

7.
1)He developed a shrap pain in the left breast-flank, which was aggravated(exacerbated; intensified) by coughing and deep breathing.
2)He experienced a sharp left-sided chest pain, which had a tendency to become worse on coughing and deep breathing.
 

第六节 皮肤 (2)

毛发
面部生许多毛 develop faical hirsutism
掉发 lose one's hair; one's hair falls off (自然); (故意)拔掉毛发 depilate
不长腋毛 do not grow axillary hair
眉毛和头发稀少且细 the eyebrows and scalp are sparse and fine
头皮无毛 the scalp was bare of hair; loss of scalp hair
金发或黑发的(女孩) blonde or brunette (girl)
Ex1:毛发的性状和分布情形正常
The quality and distribution of the hair are normal.
Ex2:虽然毛囊存在,但无腋毛与阴毛
There was absence of axillary and pubic hair although hair follicles were present.

3.肿瘤约有大苹果那么大,表面皮肤正常。
The tumor is roughly the size of a large apple and is covered with normally constituted skin.
肿瘤、肿物的大小
针头大 pinhead size
罂粟大 size of a poppy seed
粟粒大 miliary size
米粒大 size of a rice grain
豌豆大 size of a pea
蚕豆大 size of a bean
胡桃大 size of a walnut
鸽卵大 size of a pigeon's egg
鸡蛋大 size of a hen's egg
小(姆)指头大 size of a small finger(thumb)
拳头(手掌)大 size of a fist(palm)
小儿头(大人头)大 size of an infant's (a man's) head
形状大,小,增大,减少 large small, increased, reduced (diminished) in size
肿胀忽变大忽变小 swelling waxed and waned
一压即消失 disappear on pressure
肿瘤无显著的增大 no obvious increase in the tumor's size
Ex1:起初肿块是一个很小的结节,后来逐渐增大。
The mass started as a very small nodule and gradually increased in size.
Ex2:在左阴囊有大人拳头大的肿瘤,由此连至鼠蹊管。
In the left half of the scrotum there is a tumor, as large as a man's fist, which is traced up to the inguinal canal.
 

一、主要调查项目:(revise on 3/8/06)

2.现症历present illness:
→针对主诉的描述
-onset(date, mode):何时发生的? 是急/慢性的? 突然的? insidious?
-duration before present entry :发病日期到这次住院的天数?之前有无做过什么治疗?
-prodromal symptoms:发病前有什么其它症状?
-course or progress( location, duration, severity, continuity, intermission, radiation,
treatment), aggravating and alleviating factors,:关于主诉的相关描述?
→LQQOPERA
L:location 位置
Q:quality 性质 ex: dull/colic pain
Q:quantity 疾病的程度 ex:对生活的影响/一天发生几次?一次大概持续多久的时间(duration)?
O:onset 发生的 timing and mode ?
P:prodromal or precipitation factors 前驱/诱导因子; 在状况发生之前,病人在做什么事情? ex:吃完大餐之后开始胸痛
E:exaggerating factors 加重因子 ex:身体前倾时腹痛加剧
R:relieving factors / radiaction 缓解的症状的方式?/疼痛是否有远程转移的现象?
A: accompanying symptoms 其它伴随的症状?ex:伴随有恶心、吐呕的现象
→General symptoms
-loss of weight, appetite and
strength, sleep, bowel movement, frequency of urination, menstruation, etc.
→Others
-exciting cause and environmental influences ex: 最近家里有没有人感冒; travel history, animal contact history ?
-其它针对主诉相关的问题
 

第六节 皮肤 (3)

4.在右上腹部有一个硬而平滑、无压痛、可移动的肿块,直径约有4x5公分。
There was a firm, smooth, nontender, freely movable mass in the R.U.Q. measuring approximately 4 by 5 cm in diameter.

肿块的硬度
软的 soft
硬韧的 firm
硬的 hard
石头似的 of stone-like
浮肿的 edematous
骨样硬的 bony hard
软骨样的 cartilaginous
波动性的 fluctuating
紧张的 tense
有弹性的 elastic
泥土样的 clay-like
压缩性的 compressible

肿块的形状
扁平的 flat
平坦的 evenly flat
限局性 circumscribed
弥漫性的 diffuse
不规则的 irregular
松弛的 flabby
凹凸不平的 uneven
沟状的 furrowed
圆形 roundish; circular
半球状的 hemispherical
球状 globular
角状 horn-shaped
卵圆形 oval
椭圆形 elliptical
纺缍状的 spindle-shaped
菱形 rhombic
结节状的 knotty; tuberous
有茎状 pedunculated
水螅状 polypus-shaped
蜂窝状的 honeycomb
花椰菜状 cauliflower-like

ex1:由体检结果知,在左上腹部有一个8x3公分大的椭圆形肿物。
P.E. of the abdomen demonstrated an elliptical swelling of 8x3 cm in size (presenting) in the L.U.Q.
ex2:肿胀摸起来有牵张及弹性感,按捺时有压痛。到处呈现波动状。
The swelling was felt distended, elastic and tender on pressure. Fluctuation was also palpable all over the swelling.

淋巴结
ex1:颈部发肿得很厉害,但没有甲状腺或淋巴结肿大的迹象。
Neck fullness was quite pronounced without palpable evidence of thyroid or lymph node enlarement.

第七节 HEENMT & Neck (1)
1.他的头形正常。
The shape (contour; outline) of his head is normal.

2.哭声很大,无紫绀出现。
The cry was lusty, and there was no cyanosis present.

紫绀、气色
有点(显著的,中度的,轻度的,斑点的,全身性的) 紫绀 have slight (marked, moderate, faint, mottled, generalized) cyanosis
口唇和指甲发生一些(深度) 紫绀 have some (deep) cyanosis of the lips and nail beds
发生一时性紫绀 develop a transient period of cyanosis
口围紫绀消失了 cricumoral (perioral) cyanosis diappeared
脸色好 the cheeks are ruddy (flushed; rosy; healty; florid)

哭声
哭声微弱 (大声哭,用力哭,哭声弱,低声鼻鸣,无声的哭) have a weak (loud, strong, faint, low whining, aphonic) cry
ex1:他的脸颜色苍白,有点浮肿。
He has a pale, somewhat bloated face.
ex2:脸色发青,满面冷汗。
The face is cyanotic and covered with cold sweats.

3.以年龄而言,他的左眼视力和屈折度完全正常。
The left eye was entirely normal, with normal vision and refraction for his age.

眼科检查
常闪目 frequent blinking
斜视的 cross- (squint-) eyed
眼球外 (内,上,下) 斜转 eye turns out (in, up, down)
眼睑 (眼睛周围,眼球) 红肿 redness and swelling of the eyelids (area around the eye , eyeball)
把眼睛向外 (内)翻 evert (introvert) the eyelids
无明显的神经缺陷 no obvious neruological defects
ex1:右眼在任何方面都正常。
The right eye is normal in all respects.
ex2:两侧散瞳,左侧对无对光反射。
Both pupils were dilated and the left was fixed (to light).
 

二、病历与时态 (补充)
Ex:
For several years he has been subject to bouts of transient giddiness and blurred vision on assuming an erect position from a prone or sitting position. These became markedly apparent during the past two months and he began to feel that he could not stand perfectly still for more than a few minutes without feeling in some way uncomfortable, but he could prevent this by walking about. He feels a dull aching in his hands and wrists which he can circumvent over his chest. There is no puffiness of his hands.

has been:
-现在完成进行式:可表示截至现在为止的动作或状态的继续
-表示一直到现在仍受昡晕的缠扰
became & began:
-过去式:可表示过去某时的事实、动作或状态
-说明了这些症状在最近两个月中明显了起来,同时开始有新的症状
feels & is
-现在式:可表示现在的事实、动作或状态
-表示现在手、腕有钝觉性酸痛
 

continously added by hancb
 
 
 
 
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